- Locating Wild Hazelnuts in Your Area
- What to Do Once You Have Identified an American Hazelnut
- How to Find American Hazelnuts
- What American Hazelnuts Look Like
- Traditional Website
- Hazel Tree Types, Pictures and Species of Corylus
- Hazelnut (filbert)
- Hazelnut Tree
- Common names
- Parts used
- Habitat and cultivation
- Side effects and cautions
- Theta Hazelnut Tree
Locating Wild Hazelnuts in Your Area
The Hybrid Hazelnut Consortium is looking to expand our collection of Corylus Americana, American hazelnuts. Help us increase the genetic diversity of our breeding pool by locating wild American Hazelnuts in your area.
What to Do Once You Have Identified an American Hazelnut
If you think you have identified an American hazelnut, let us know by contacting the Consortium.
After reviewing your information, we will contact you and let you know if we would like a sample of your wild hazelnut and the proper procedures to follow.
Contact the Consortium
Native range of American hazelnuts.
How to Find American Hazelnuts
Native American Hazelnuts are found though out the Midwest, East, and Southeast of the United States and Canada. Please refer to the map, and discover if you might have American hazelnuts growing in your state.
What American Hazelnuts Look Like
Key Identifying Features of the American Hazelnut
- Heart Shape Leaves
- Leaf paler on back than front
- Involucre (leafy bract)
- 8 to 15 Feet tall shrub
- Hazelnut Nut
American hazelnut or American filbert is native to most of the Eastern part of the United States (see above). Here are a few pictures of what a typical hazelnut looks like.
Raw hazelnuts, ready for roasting.
(Taylor Smith/Hillsboro Argus)
Early this week came the news that a frost had damaged the hazelnut crop in Turkey, which produces 70 percent of the world’s supply of hazelnuts.
While the news was bad for Nutella lovers, it was good for Oregon’s hazelnut farmers. They grow 99 percent of the U.S. crop.
When The Oregonian posted the story on its Facebook page, the hue and cry was not about Nutella, it was about what to call the nuts: hazelnuts or filberts.
Post by The Oregonian.
So what is it?
For answers, we went to the growers, well, their industry representatives, the Hazelnut Marketing Board, the Oregon Hazelnut Commission, the Nut Growers Society of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, and the Associated Oregon Hazelnut Industries.
Their take? There’s no wrong answer. Filbert is of French origin; Hazelnut is coined by the English. And that seems to be the distinction.
Or it could be a regional thing, as the Oregon State University extension service asserts in advice about growing them.
The Legislature, in 1989, named it the state nut, but on its Blue Book website calls it the hazelnut, or filbert, scientific name: Corylus avellana. (Not helpful, Blue Book.)
One thing that does seem clear is that George Dorris is responsible for the birth of the modern hazelnut industry in Oregon, as Anne Saker of The Oregonian wrote in a lovely treatise in 2009.
But, back to the news at hand.
Oregon growers have been ramping up to meet growing demand for hazelnuts, particularly for spreads like Nutella, as Elliot Njus of The Oregonian wrote this week. Michael Klein of the Oregon Hazelnut Marketing Board told Njus that in the last seven years hazelnut acreage has grown in Oregon by 50 percnt.
This year’s crop estimate should be out later this month.
— Sue Jepsen
You’d never guess that John Cannon, taking long strides down his orchards in the lovely Bourne Valley, in Kent, was approaching his 80th year. The secret of his vitality? ‘Cobnuts,’ he smiles. Well, he would say that. He’s the president of that distinguished body, the Kentish Cobnuts Association.
But I wouldn’t be at all surprised if he weren’t right. Cobnuts are brimful of vitamin E, calcium and other life-enhancing substances. I cannot, from personal experience, go quite as far as Mr Cannon, when he cracks one open, displaying the white, tender curve of the fresh kernel in its brown half-shell, and says: ‘They’re like oysters, aren’t they? Aphrodisiac.’ But half a dozen provide the same nutritional goodness as a slice of steak. I guzzled about 30 as we walked the fields. Milky and sweet, with a crunch like fresh coconut, they are, above all, good to eat.
Now, when I say cobnut, don’t think of the wizened little balls that inhabit hazelnut shells around Christmas. Those, like nearly all the nuts we eat at that season, are kiln-dried and imported. A fresh cobnut, like a seagull’s egg, is one of the few truly seasonal foods that are left in this age of round-the-year strawberries and anytime mange touts.
Already, however, I’ve sewn unintentional confusion by the mention of hazelnuts. Concentrate for a moment. Cobnuts are a type of hazelnut, as are their first cousins, the more torpedo-shaped filberts (St Philbert’s Day, August 20, is traditionally the first day that the earliest varieties of cobnut can be picked.) Kentish Cob is the most popular variety, although, colloquially, some people use Kentish cobs as a generic term. Clear?
It doesn’t matter. Suffice it to say that cobnuts are all pretty small and variants on spherical. They come in as many as 60 different kinds, not all of which are commercial, from the elegant Imperatrice Eugenie, pretending that the green frills of its husk are a ball gown, to Gunslebert, a Germanically heavy cropper. For sweetness, there’s Butler, discovered by a Mr Butler growing in his American orchard; for size, the aptly named Cannonball, which would have done some damage fired from muskets on the plains of Waterloo; but steer clear of Fertile de Coutard ‘a horrible French nut, impossible to crack’.
Man has been eating hazelnuts since the Stone Age. Nutting the gathering of wild nuts remained one of the joys of the countryside for centuries, celebrated by Thomas Hardy in Under the Greenwood Tree. In his Dictionary, Dr Johnson, curiously, seems not to have known the cobnut as something to eat, but as the champion nut in a game of the same name, played on the basis of conkers. ‘The object of each party,’ notes John Brand in his Observations on the Popular Antiquities of Great Britain, 1849, in terms that would probably not be chosen now, ‘is to crush the nuts of his opponent.’
The cobnut’s zenith of popularity was reached during the Victorian age, when polished mahogany dinner tables were cleared for dessert. Cobnuts then were as much a part of the post-prandial ritual as port. The beautiful blue hills of Kent may have devoted more than 50,000 acres to the orchards that grew them. ‘The golden triangle lay between Tonbridge, Sevenoaks and Maidstone,’ says cobnut grower-cum-Chesterton Humberts estate agent Alexander Hunt. It still does.
After the Second World War, the public turned its back on this home-grown treat. Mechanisation was the vogue in farming, and sloping fields of bushy nut trees didn’t lend themselves to it. When Mr Hunt started out 20 years ago, he was offered an old orchard, solely on the basis that he would pick the nuts. Supermarket shelves were stocked with mechanically harvested nuts from Turkey and California. The home market had collapsed.
Now, the cobnut is finding a niche, with the better supermarkets dedicating shelf space to fresh English nuts until the avalanche of their dried, foreign brethren arrives towards the end of the year. The whole of Mr Hunt’s production, however, is sold direct to the public, through farmer’s markets and the internet. As a result, cobnuts are recolonising the county, the area under commercial cultivation having risen from practically zero to about 400 acres.
At Roughway Farm, Mr Cannon rummages in the green depths of a cobnut tree and extracts a cluster of Cosfords, their thin shells only just covered by a fringed elf’s cap of husk. They are truly ‘a nut for connoisseurs’, of excellent flavour. Then, he pulls a few, whippy shoots off the tree. Even in a dry season, the trees grow quickly and need to be thinned, to let in the light that helps nuts form next year.
Already, the catkins of the next crop are forming. They will blow yellow in the spring. I leave the farm with my pockets bulging with cobnuts, knowing that, at home, I will not be able to tell a White Filbert from a Merveille de Bollwiller. But who cares? They’re all Kentish cobs in the vernacular. And I’ve discovered the elixir of life.
What to do with cobnuts
Fresh cobnuts can be eaten in salads or simply out of their shells. They’re milky, crunchy and sweet. Straight from the tree, they nestle in a husk of green and tan frills, which turn brown after a time, but remain a pretty addition to the fruit bowl but don’t leave them there for too long. Like other fresh foods, they need to be kept in the fridge. Throw away any loose husks, but don’t remove ones that are still green and firmly attached to the nut. A little salt helps preserve them. If you store them correctly, they should keep until Christmas and the New Year. To buy direct, visit www.kentishcobnuts.com
Watercress, sweet pear, rocket and parmesan salad
Serves 6 as a starter
3 large ripe pears (peeled if you wish)
100g rocket leaves
Juice of 1 lemon
30-40 fresh cobnuts
Put the washed rocket and watercress in a large bowl. Cut the pears in half, deseed and slice each half into four lengthways. Add them to the bowl. Pour over the lemon juice and a good drizzle of olive oil and season, then toss the ingredients together. Shell the cobnuts and chop them in half lengthways. Place the salad on six small plates and scatter the cobnuts roughly over each serving. Finally, shave the parmesan on top. Serve immediately.
Taken from ‘The Kentish Cobnut Recipe Book’ by Alexander Hunt, £14.99, available in February 2010 through www.kentishcobnuts.com
Golden Nuts keep perfectly in their shells even if they smell musty, to keep moist store in a
polythene bag or container in a cool place to stop sprouting.
Green Cobnuts have a unique flavour, often compared to fresh Coconut, by the middle to end of September they turn GOLDEN and become sweet as the starch turns to sugar. Golden Cobnuts are supplied without husks, there are approx. 25% more nuts in a kilo of Golden Cobnuts, which explains the higher price.
Paypal takes your payment immediately, so there may be a considerable delay between payment and delivery if this is a problem please order nearer the end of August,when we expect to start deliveries of Green Cobnuts, or the End of September for Golden.
All Allens Farm Cobnuts prices include NEXT DAY COURIER DELIVERY to UK Mainland, so you are sure to receive your Cobnuts in tip top condition. Each delivery is tracked, if you are out the Courier is instructed to leave them in a safe place, they do not need to be signed for.
Please give special instructions if this is not satisfactory.
As the nuts are perishable we do not normally resend, if they are returned undelivered.
Courier delivery is included to the UK Mainland only. Scottish Highlands, Offshore Islands (including Isle of Wight) and other Non Mainland destinations, are only available in 2kg packs send by Royal Mail first class. 10Kg sacks are available at an additional cost of £15.00. (email: [email protected]). Overseas orders are not accepted due to Customs restrictions.
There is an area of Kent which is almost totally devoted to the cultivation of cobnuts and that is the area from St Mary’s Platt to Plaxtol. Once this was a thriving enterprise in Kent with great demand for cobnuts from London however, there are few cobnuts plats left today. No more that 250 acres of old plats survive although this loss has slowed downs in the increasing recognition of their historical, cultural, wildlife and landscape value.
Cobnuts are usually picked from August through towards the end of September. Traditionally the cobnut harvest begins on St Philbert’s day, anglicised to St Filbert’s day, 20th August as the nut in its original form is believed to have been named after the 7th Century French Monk. The branches are shaken and the nuts gathered from the ground, although some nuts are picked earlier when they green and are known as wet nuts. As the cobnuts darken to a golden colour from picking green at that stage they are thought to be at their best and keep well. The difference between a cobnut and filbert is the length of husk, the husk of the filbert is much longer than the nut. An average total crop is about 1000 lbs/acre.
Traditionally nuts were picked into wicker baskets called kibsies and sent to market in round baskets known as sieves. One grower used to put a round piece of blue tissue paper over the nuts then a layer of green bracken, all secured with wands which are thin straight sucker shoots that were removed from the base of the tree across the basket. Whole families took part in picking and schools granted a day’s closure for nutting.
Hazel Tree Types, Pictures and Species of Corylus
Hazel Tree (Corylus colurna)
Turkish Hazel Leaf (Corylus colurna)
Hazel trees (Corylus) are a genus of 26 species, mainly deciduous trees and some large shrubs, that are all native to the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. These trees are also commonly known by their seed, a edible nut called a “Hazelnut”, or a “cobnut”. The trees may be commonly referred to as “Hazelnut Trees”. See List of Hazel Vernacular Names for common names of the Corylus species in other languages.
Hazel nuts, (Hazelnuts)
The nuts of all species of Hazel (Corylus) are edible, however the species (Corylus avellana) is grown the most due to its higher production rate, and has many Cultivars. Hazelnuts can also be known as “Cobnuts” or “filbert nuts” .
Hazelnuts are used in confectionery to make some pralines, in chocolate for some chocolate bars (such as Cadbury’s), and in some hazelnut paste products (such as Nutella). In the United States, hazelnut butter is being promoted as a more nutritious spread than its peanut butter counterpart, as Hazelnuts contain significant amounts of thiamine and vitamin B6, as well as smaller amounts of other B vitamins. Hazelnuts are rich in protein and unsaturated fat.
Identification of Hazel Trees;
The shape and structure of the involucre, nut and also the growth habit (whether a tree or a shrub), are important, as well as the leaves in the identification of the different species of Corylus (Hazel). See List of Hazel Tree Species.
Hazel tree species have simple, rounded leaves with a double serrated margin. Hazel flowers are produced very early in spring before the leaves, and are monoecious, with single-sex catkins, the male catkins are pale yellow and 5 ↔ 12 cm long, and the female ones are very small and largely concealed in the buds, with only the bright-red, 1 ↔ 3mm long styles being visible. Hazel seeds are nuts 1 ↔ 2.5cm long and 1 ↔ 2cm in diameter, surrounded by an involucre (husk) which partly to fully encloses the nut, (Hazelnut).
Facts about the Corylus Genus of Trees
- Genus Latin Scientific Name = Corylus
- Genus Name Pronunciation: KOR-ih-lus
- Genus Name Meaning: From the Greek “krylos”, meaning Hazelnut.
- Genus Common Names = Hazel, Hazelnut, see List of Hazel Vernacular Names.
- Number of Taxa in the Corylus Genus = 26, See List of Hazel Cultivars.
List of Hazelnut Trees, Corylus Genus, All known species, taxa types, organized by scientific Latin botanical name first and common names second
|Botanical Tree Name||Common Tree Name|
|Corylus americana||American Hazel, Hazelnut, American filbert|
|Corylus avellana||Common Hazel|
|Corylus avellana var. avellana||Distribution: Europe to Caucasus|
|Corylus avellana var. pontica||Distribution: N. Turkey, W. Transcaucasus|
|Corylus chinensis||Chinese Hazel|
|Corylus colchica||Colchican Filbert|
|Corylus colurna||Turkish Hazel|
|Corylus × colurnoides||Trazel
|Corylus cornuta||Beaked Hazel|
|Corylus cornuta ssp. californica||California Hazel,
Distribution: British Columbia to California
|Corylus cornuta ssp. cornuta||Distribution: Canada, N. and E. U.S.A.|
|Corylus fargesii||Farges’ Hazel|
|Corylus ferox||Himalayan Hazel|
|Corylus ferox var. ferox||Himalayan Hazel, Distribution: C. Himalaya to Myanmar and Tibet|
|Corylus ferox var. thibetica||Tibetan Hazel
Distribution: C. China
|Corylus heterophylla||Asian Hazel, Siberian Hazel|
|Corylus heterophylla var. heterophylla||Distribution: SE. Siberia, S. Russian Far East, E. Mongolia, N. and NE. China, Korea, N. & C. Japan|
|Corylus heterophylla var. sutchuensis||Distribution: China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan)|
|Corylus jacquemontii||Jacquemont’s Hazel|
|Corylus maxima||Filbert, Giant Filbert, European Filbert|
|Corylus potaninii||Distribution: SC. China, (Szechuan; Hupeh; Kweichau; Yunnan.)|
|Corylus sieboldiana||Asian Beaked Hazel|
|Corylus sieboldiana var. mandshurica||Manchurian Hazelnut
Distribution: SE. Siberia to N. & C. Japan
|Corylus sieboldiana var. sieboldiana||Distribution: S. Korea, Japan|
|Corylus wangii||Wang’s Hazel|
|Corylus wulingensis||Distribution: China (Hunan)|
|Corylus yunnanensis||Yunnan Hazel|
List of Tree Names last up-dated on 2018-04-07
List of Hazel Cultivars
Hazelnut, belongs to the family Corylus, which includes C. avellana (Common or European hazelnut) and the closely related species C. maxima (filbert). Hazels are deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Betulaceae grown for their edible nuts. Hazelnuts are large multi-stemmed shrubs or small trees with rounded leaves which possess a doubly serrated margin (each tooth bears another tooth). They produces flowers very late in the winter prior to the emergence of any leaves. The female flowers are small and only the bright red stigmas are visible protruding from the bud. The male flower is a catkin which is pale yellow in color and measures 6–12 cn (2–5 in) in length. The fruit of the hazelnut is a classic nut which grows in clusters of 1–5, each protected by a leafy husk which covers most (common) or all of the nut (filbert). The nut is oval in shape and yellow to brown in colour. Each has a pale scale at its base. When ripe, the nut falls from the husk to the ground. Hazenut can reach a height of 3–8 m (10–26 ft) and can live for many years, although its commercial lifespan is usually about 40 years. Hazelnut originates from Europe and South East Asia.
Hazelnuts on the tree
Young hazelnut trees
Hazelnut shrubs ‹ ×
The kernel of the hazelnut is edible and can be eaten raw or toasted. The kernels can be processed to produce praline or as an ingredient in confectionery and baked goods.
Basic requirements Filberts are hardy plants which can survive adverse growing conditions. They should be grown in a soil which is at least 2.4 to 3 m (8-10 ft) deep and will grow optimally in well-draining, fertile loams with a pH between 5.5 and 7.5 in full sun or partial shade. Filberts will grow well in areas where wild hazel grows large and vigorous. Propagation methods While it is possible to propagate filberts from cuttings, the success rate for obtaining rooted cuttings is usually only between 20 and 50%. The most successful method of propagating filberts is by layering. The most successful and widely used method of layering for commercial filbert production is tip layering. Tip layering involves bending shoots into a V-shape and burying the lower parts in the soil to a depth of 20 to 25 cm (8-10 in) while the tips of the shoot, which will form the new tree tops, are kept upright. The soil is kept moist to promote root development above the V bend on the tip and roots should ideally be congregated in a 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) section of the shoot. Planting Trees should be planted in early winter while dormant. The trees should be planted at least 6 m (20 ft) apart. Before planting, remove as much as possible of the old layered shoot and prune back the ends of any broken roots. Plant the tree in a hole large enough to accommodate the roots but avoid deep planting. Fill in the hole around the roots with fine soil, pressing down with your hands to eliminate any air pockets around the roots. Add soil on top of the roots and tamp down to set the tree. Fill in the remainder of the hole with loosely packed soil. Once planted, the tree should be headed back in order to compensate for reduced water uptake. the tree should be cut back to a height of 45 to 76 cm (18-30 in). Suckering Hazelnut trees produce suckers which should be removed from the tree at, or close to, their point of origin on the trunk. This can be achieved by gently removing the soil from around the sucker. While the trunk is exposed, any other buds which are beginning to show should also be removed. Cutting the sucker at or just below the soil line will encourage more suckers so it is important to make the cut as close to the trunk as possible. Harvesting Newly planted trees usually bear nuts within two to three years after planting although full production may not be reached until twenty five years after planting. The nuts are usually harvested two to three times over the season. The nuts can be spread out on the ground to dry or, as with commercially produced nuts, dried artificially at a temperature of 90 to 100°C (176-212°F).
Beddes, T., Renquist, S., Kuhns, M. & Pace, M. (2011). Hazelnuts in the Home Orchard. Utah State University Cooperative Extension. Available at: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/Horticulture_Fruit_2011-01pr.pdf. . Free to access. Schuster, C. E. (1937). Filberts. Oregon State System of Higher Education Federal Coperative Extension Service. Available at: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/17152/Extensionbulletin503.pdf?sequence=1. . Free to access. Teviotdale, B. L., Michailides, T. J. & Pscheidt, J. W. (eds) (2002). Compendium of Nut Crop Diseases in Temperate Zones. American Phytopathological Society Press. Available at: http://www.apsnet.org/apsstore/shopapspress/Pages/42848.aspx. Available for purchase from APS Press.
- Common Hazel
- Hazelnut tree
The hazels belong to the genus Corylus which are deciduous (shedding leaves every year) trees as well as huge shrubs that are indigenous to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. This genus is generally classified as a member of the birch family Betulaceae, while a number of botanists divide the hazels (alongside the hornbeams as well as related genera) into an individual family called Corylaceae.
The hazel trees bear uncomplicated, curved leaves having double-indented borders. The flowers of hazels blossom especially early in the spring, prior to the emergence of the leaves, and are monoecious (having a single-sex catkin). While the male catkins have a light yellow hue and are about 5 cm to 12 cm in length, the female catkins are extremely diminutive and mostly hidden within the buds. Only the vivid red styles of the female catkins, which grow to a length of 1 mm to 3 mm, are detectable. The seeds of this tree are actually nuts that measure 1 cm to 2.5 cm in length and about 1 cm to 2 cm across. These seeds or nuts are enclosed by husks (involucres) that include the nuts either partially or completely.
The form as well as the makeup of the husk, in addition to its growth pattern (irrespective of being a suckering shrub or tree) is actually significant in identifying the various hazel species.
It may be noted that the nuts or seeds of all hazel species can be eaten. In fact, the species called common hazel is cultivated extensively for its nuts. Besides, filbert is possibly the second most widely grown hazel variety. Although nuts are also collected from the other hazel species, besides those collected from filbert, the nuts of other hazel species do not have much commercial value.
The Celts were of the view that people consuming hazelnuts were provided with knowledge and motivation. In fact, there are several deviations of a very old saga which says that as many as nine hazel trees grew surrounding a holy pool, throwing down nuts into the water that were consumed by salmon (the fish that was blessed to the Druids), which assimilated knowledge and wisdom. It was also believed that the number of spots on the body of the salmon indicated the number of nuts they had consumed.
There is also another tale which says that in his effort to become sagacious, a Druid teacher caught one such exceptional salmon and instructed one of his pupils to cook the fish for him, but not eat it himself. While the student was cooking the fish, boiling liquid from the fish splattered on the thumb of the student, who naturally sucked his thumb to cool it, and, in the process, absorbed all the wisdom. This student was named Fionn Mac Cumhail or Fin McCool and later became one of the greatest gallant leaders in Gaelic folklore.
Nuts, leaves, bark, leafy cover of the hazelnut, hard shell.
Hazelnuts have a number of uses, including therapeutic and culinary. They contain high levels of energy and are packed with several nutrients that are beneficial for our health as well as necessary for the best possible health. It may be noted that 100 grams of hazelnut supply our body with 628 calories. Hazelnuts also have a rich content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, in addition to essential fatty acid – linoleic acid – which is useful in lowering the levels of LDL cholesterol or ‘bad cholesterol’ and augmenting the levels of HDL cholesterol or ‘good cholesterol’ in the bloodstream. Findings of several scientific studies hint that Mediterranean diet contains a high amount of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and, thereby, assists in averting strokes and coronary artery disease by means of supporting a hale and hearty blood lipid profile.
Besides mono-unsaturated fatty acids, hazelnuts also have a rich vitamin, dietary fiber and mineral content. In addition, they are loaded with phytochemicals that are beneficial for our health. In general, hazelnuts facilitate in protecting us from ailments and many types of cancers.
Hazelnuts offer us several other health benefits; they have very high folate content. In effect, this is a unique characteristic of these nuts. For instance, 100 grams of fresh hazelnuts enclose 113µg of folate. It may be noted that folate is a significant vitamin that facilitates in preventing megaloblastic anemia and most notably, defects of neural tube in the newborn.
These nuts are also a wonderful resource for vitamin E and enclose approximately 15 grams of this nutrient in every 100 gram providing the complete RDA. It may be noted that vitamin E is a potent antioxidant soluble in lipids and it is necessary for sustaining the integration of the cell coatings of the skin and mucous membranes by means of shielding them from detrimental oxygen free radicals.
Similar to almonds, hazelnuts also do not contain gluten and, hence, are a safe substitute for food sources that may be employed in preparing food formulas that are free from gluten for patients who are allergic to wheat, gluten sensitive and enduring celiac disease. Hazelnuts are loaded with several vital B-complex vitamins, for instance, niacin, riboflavin, folate, thiamine, pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as pantothenic acid.
Hazelnuts are also a copious source of several vital minerals, such as potassium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus and the trace mineral selenium. It may be worth mentioning that manganese and copper are the indispensable co-factors for the antioxidant enzyme called superoxide dismutase. On the other hand, iron aids in preventing the developing microcytic-anemia. Phosphorus and magnesium are two vital constituents of bone metabolism.
The oil extracted from hazelnut has a nut-like fragrance and also possesses a wonderful astringent attribute. This oil is effective in protecting the skin well from aridity. In addition, hazelnut oil has also been employed for culinary purposes as well as in the form of a ‘courier’ or base oil in conventional medications for aromatherapy, message therapy, in addition to the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
You may consume hazelnuts as they are or eat them after roasting, sweetening or salting. In addition to hazels, filberts are nutty, but still have a pleasing sweet flavour.
Hazelnuts are extensively employed in confectionery products in the form of an addition to biscuits, cakes, sweets and chocolates. Apart from this, the nuts are also used in making hazelnut butter, which is a well-accepted food among people who suffer from allergic reactions from consuming peanuts. Hazelnut butter is also popular owing to its flavour, which is less salty. Nevertheless, compared to soy or peanut butter, it contains more fat.
Habitat and cultivation
Normally, the hazelnut grows in the form of a small tree having numerous stems or a bush and is found growing naturally in the southern regions of Europe as well as in Turkey. In the United States, the hazelnut trees are cultivated in the form of trees having a solitary trunk that are able to grow up to a height of 5 meters or ever higher. Every species of hazelnut needs cross-pollination with a view to produce nuts. Therefore, every planting needs either two or even more species in the same area.
If you are growing hazelnuts, you should ensure that the soil is well-rained and the orchards are not located in any place where the soil is shallow, poor drainage or extremely light or heavy. In most cases, the roots of the hazelnut trees or shrubs exist just in the depth of one meter under the soil. Nevertheless, it is important for the soils to be adequately deep to permit the active root systems of the plant to go in up to two to three meters underneath them. It may be noted that the penetration of the roots may, however, be prevented by an absence of aeration, rock or elevated water tables. It may be worth mentioning that hazelnut trees pull moisture from the upper soil layer. In effect, no solitary direction of incline is more improved compared to the other, barring to the extent that it has an effect on the depth of the soil as well as retention of moisture.
In effect, 60 cm of the soil on top may possibly become arid by the time it is the middle of summer, while the soil deeper down is unlikely to become arid till the summer end. Therefore, in this instance irritation will be required to prevail over the condition. The maximum advantage of irrigation when you are trying to establish an orchard is to get large trees more quickly.
The most suitable soil for growth of the hazelnuts ought to be in the range of somewhat acidic to neutral. Hence, it is most important to have a soil test done prior to planting the trees.
Several cultivars of the common hazel (botanical name Corylus avellana) as well as filbert are cultivated in the form of ornamental plants in the gardens, counting the forms having contorted or buckled stems (such as C. avellana ‘Contorta’, well known as ‘Harry Lauder’s walking stick’ from the plant’s mutilated look); plants having weeping boughs (C. avellana ‘Pendula) as well as hazel plants having purple colored leaves, such as C. maxima “Purpurea”.
Before concluding discussion on this topic, it needs to be noted that hazels are also employed in the form of food plants by the larvae of an assortment of Lepidoptera species.
Chemical analysis of hazel fruit has revealed that it encloses sugar, starch, oil, carbon hydrates, beta-carotene, iron, calcium, protein fats, phosphorus, sulfur, zinc, selenium and other substances. The bark as well as the leaves of hazelnut trees enclose ethereal oil, tannin and quercetin. The fruits of hazelnut trees enclose nearly 70 per cent of the fatty substances and about 20 per cent of nitrate matter.
The infusion prepared from the leaves of hazel trees/ shrubs acts as a blood purifier. On the other hand, the pollens of hazel flowers are being effectively used to treat epilepsy. The decoction prepared from the bark of the hazel tree is employed externally for treating varicose veins as well as different other dermatological and also muscle conditions.
Side effects and cautions
People who are using or intend to use hazelnut especially for therapeutic purposes ought to be aware of the potential side effects of this product. It may be noted that the allergy caused by consumption of hazelnut or products containing it is known as type-I (Ig-E mediated) hypersensitivity response. This occurs to some people who use foods containing hazelnuts. Overall, the allergic reaction caused by hazelnut may possibly be hastened following exposure to the pollen of the hazel tree.
The allergic symptoms caused owing to consumption of hazelnuts or food substances containing them is called ‘oral allergy syndrome’ and may possibly include irritation or itching in the region of the lips, tongue and the throat with subsequent distension of the lips and throat resulting in breathing troubles. Very often, cross-reaction to specific other seeds, nuts, vegetables and fruits are also widespread. Hence, it is advisable that people who having allergic reactions to hazelnuts ought to keep away from all food preparations containing any hazel product.
It is possible to consume the hazel fruits directly after removing the hull/ husk. In addition, they can also be pulverized and blended with honey for consumption. Different parts of the hazel tree, including the leaves, buds and bark, have dissimilar applications and some of them are discussed briefly below.
Hazel leaf infusion The leaves of the hazel tree or shrub are utilized to prepare an infusion. Two teaspoons of mashed leaves place in 250 ml of boiling water. Cover the container for about 10 minutes and subsequently strain the liquid. This infusion may be used for treating a number of conditions. For instance, used in conjugation with chestnut tea, the infusion prepared from hazel leaves may be used to cure a number of conditions related to the bloodstream, such as phlebitis and varicose veins. In addition, it may also be used for treating a number of heart conditions. Hazel leaf tincture To prepare a tincture with hazel leaves place a portion of grounded leaves in five portions of alimentary alcohol 70C – maintain this mixture at room temperature for about 15 days and subsequently strain the liquid. Shake the mixture many times during the 15-day period with a view to take out the active principles from the herb. You need to dilute this tincture by adding 100 ml water to it. To treat lighter conditions, take 10 drops of this diluted tincture at least thrice every day. This tincture may also be used for prolonged treatments. Hazel leaf powder The dehydrated/ dried up leaves of hazel are grounded using a coffee grinder and subsequently filtered using an extremely fine sieve. Next, take the finely grounded hazel leaf powder on the top of a knife and place it below your tongue for about 10 minutes and subsequently swallow the powder with some water. Repeat this thrice every day. Hazel butter When hazel butter is used in a cold pressed form, it is extremely effective in treating tapeworms. In such cases, take one teaspoon of hazel butter on an empty stomach for many days at a stretch. In addition, this oil is also employed for numerous cosmetic products, since the hazel oil assists in making lubrication of the arid skin better. In effect, hazel butter is effective for treating conditions like psoriasis, ichthyosis and others. Hazel bark macerated in wine Put about 50 grams of pounded hazel bark in one litre of superior quality wine, if possible white wine, and allow it to remain for eight days. During these eight days, shake the container several times and subsequently filter the liquid. This mixture may be employed both internally as well as externally to cure injuries, stomach ulcers, varicose veins, old wounds and many other conditions. When you are using the mixture internally, take 50 ml of it thrice every day when you need to rejuvenate the blood and/ or heal any type of wound. Hazel buds tincture You may prepare a therapeutic mixture by adding one portion of freshly mashed hazel buds to five portions of alimentary alcohol 70C. Keep the combination for about 15 minutes and keep shaking the container frequently with a view to extract the active principles contained in the buds. Subsequently, filter the liquid and store it in little bottles in a chilly place. It may be noted that this mixture encloses a hormone that facilitates growth and is also effective for treating several other conditions. When the hazel bud tincture is blended with chestnut tincture in a ratio of 1:1, it is extremely effective in treating conditions related to the bloodstream as well as paralysis. The standard dosage of the hazel bud tincture for children is taking five to fifteen drops of it, diluted in tea thrice daily, depending on their age and body weight. The normal dosage of this tincture for adults is consuming one teaspoonful of it thrice every day. In addition, hazel bud tincture may also be employed for a number of conditions related to ageing.
Hazelnut, (genus Corylus), also called filbert, cobnut, or hazel, genus of about 15 species of shrubs and trees in the birch family (Betulaceae) and the edible nuts they produce. The plants are native to the north temperate zone. Several species are of commercial importance for their nuts, and a number are valuable hedgerow and ornamental trees grown for their colourful autumnal foliage. An oil from the European filbert, or common hazel (Corylus avellana), is used in food products, perfumes, and soaps; the tree yields a reddish white soft timber, useful for small articles such as tool handles and walking sticks.
Hazelnuts are deciduous; their leaves are alternate, serrate, obovate, and hairy. The plants range from 3 to 36 metres (10 to 120 feet) in height. In late winter a profusion of yellow male catkins and smaller red-centred clusters of female flowers appear on the same tree. The roundish or oblong brown nut, usually 1 to 4 cm (0.5 to 1.5 inches) long, is partly or wholly enclosed in a husk. The plants are deep-rooted moderately shade-tolerant trees that fruit best in well-drained soil and in full sun.
Choice nuts are produced by two Eurasian trees, the European filbert (Corylus avellana) and the giant hazel, or giant filbert (C. maxima), and by hybrids of these species with two American shrubs, the American hazelnut (C. americana) and the beaked hazelnut (C. cornuta). The large cobnut is a variety of the European filbert, and Lambert’s filbert is a variety of the giant filbert. Nuts produced by the Turkish hazelnut (C. colurna) are sold commercially as Constantinople nuts. The former common name for the genus was hazel; various species were termed filbert, hazelnut, or cobnut, depending on the relative length of the nut to its husk, but this distinction was found to be misleading.
The Jamaican cobnut (Omphalea triandra) has a similar flavour but is an unrelated plant of the family Euphorbiaceae.
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Theta Hazelnut Tree
Theta Hazelnut Tree, a compact and attractive nut trees are ideal for your yard and landscape. Actively growing virtually all year, Filberts feature striking, long, yellow, male catkins that form in late fall and delicious and nutritious nuts that are ready to harvest in September. We love roasting filberts as a topping for ice cream, in cereal, and for baking.
This recent Oregon State University introduction features very flavorful, medium-size nuts and immunity to Filbert Blight. Plant Theta with Jefferson or Eta for cross-pollination.
Latin Name: Corylus avellana
Site and Soil: Filberts like 1/2 day to full sun and well-drained soil.
Pollination Requirements: Plant with Jefferson or Eta for cross-pollination.
Hardiness:Filbert trees are hardy to minus 25° F. Flowers are hardy to approx. minus 15° F.
Bearing Age: 2-3 years after planting
Size at Maturity: 8-12 ft. in height
Bloom Time: Winter and spring
Ripening Time: September
Yield: 20+ lbs.
Pests & Diseases: Theta is immune to Eastern Filbert Blight. Filbert worm can damage nuts of all Filbert varieties.
USDA Zone: 5
Sunset Western Zone: 2-7
Sunset Northeast Zone: 32, 34-43