Lunaria annuaBiennialPinkSun or part shadeHeight : 60cmFlowering period : April – JuneThis is a good source of nectar :Price for : 9cm pot = £2.95 : Sold Out

Honesty is a popular cottage garden flower, and looks wonderful in both a traditional and contemporary garden setting. The flowers are usually pink , occasionally white and plants will flower in their second year as they are biennial. The 9cm pots and plug plants we have in stock for 2019 are in their first year, so flowering and self seeding would be expected in 2020.
Wildlife attracted:
The flowers are a valuable nectar source for bees
Other features:
The dried seed pods leave transparent ovals sometimes called moonpennies. They are great for flower arranging, or when left on the plant they add an interesting feature to the autumn garden.

We endeavour to deliver your order to you within 7-10 working days of your order being placed; if there is a delay we will let you know.

Once shipped you will usually receive your order within 24-48 hours.
For further information on delivery please check out our delivery details here and terms.
Some plants are only available at certain times of year. For any queries regarding stock availability please do contact us and we will be happy to advise.

Learn About Lunaria

Common Disease Problems

Clubroot: Leaf symptoms include stunting, yellowing and wilt. When the plants are removed from the soil the roots may have galls, swelling or be distorted. Burpee Recommends: Test the soil pH as clubroot is most common in acid soil. Add lime to raise the pH. Avoid planting where brassica plants were grown the previous year.

Septoria Leaf Spot: This disease causes severe losses in the Atlantic and Central states. It is most severe during rainy seasons in closely planted gardens. Circular spots with gray centers and dark margins appear on the lower older leaves. Fungal spores are produced and darken the center of the spots. Burpee Recommends: Remove and destroy infected plant debris. Don’t handle or brush against plants when they are wet. Rotate plantings. Remove weeds growing nearby.

White Blister Rust: This fungus causes white to cream colored blister-like lesions form on the undersides of leaves that rupture and turn powdery white. The leaf area opposite the lesions bulges out slightly and turns slightly yellow. Burpee Recommends: Avoid wetting the leaves when watering. Remove infected plant part and destroy. Provide good air circulation.

Common Pest and Cultural Problems

Aphids: Greenish, red, black or peach colored sucking insects can spread disease as they feed on the undersides of leaves. They leave a sticky residue on foliage that attracts ants. Burpee Recommends: Introduce or attract natural predators into your garden such as lady beetles and wasps which feed on aphids. You can also wash them off with a strong spray, or use an insecticidal soap.

Money Plant or “Silver Dollar Plant” Lunaria Seeds 6525

Description

Money Plant or “Silver Dollar Plant” Lunaria Seeds 6525. Money Plant forms a tight “rosette” of crown and root surrounded by foliage. A cold period over the first winter is required to initiate stem growth that produces the flowers. Plants grow to 90 cm (36″) in height and flower freely from early summer with shiny, flat, white silvery seed pods forming later on. The pods are a favourite for dried bouquets. This plant prefers noon hour shade and light mulching helps over-wintering evergreen rosettes survive the winter without damage. Flowers are fragrant, purple, pink or white appearing in clusters in late spring. Self seeds but not invasive. Biennial hardy to Zone 4.

How to Grow

500 seeds/gram. Outdoors, sow seed in June and July for flowers the next year. Indoors sow seed in a soil-less mix in early April. Germinate at 20 C (70 F) for 15-20 days. Then grow on under lights at a slightly cooler temperature before hardening off and planting out after the danger of frost has passed. Space plants 30 cm (12″) apart in the garden.

How to grow: Honesty

It is gregarious and often seeds in a crowd when its effect can be magnificent. Unfortunately it has no scent. Although a biennial, with each plant living only two years, when it is established it will go on forever, becoming a feature of the late spring garden. When left to its own devices it often turns up in unexpected places.

In the countryside it sometimes leaves the confines of the garden and makes itself at home on banks and verges, its deep-purple flowers mingling with the vivid lime-green grassbracts of wood spurge.

When its flowers have gone the paper-thin discs are blown and rolled this way and that until they lodge in a corner somewhere. Gradually the discs turn to skeletons and scatter their seed on the earth to start a new colony.

Lunaria annua has several different forms. There is the familiar pure-white form but also a less common white-flowered variegated form. Lunaria annua ‘Alba Variegata’ has creamy-white variegated leaves and pure-white flowers. It’s an aristocratic honesty, although indistinguishable from a commoner in its first year when its foliage is rough and dark green. It is only in its flowering year that it shows its true colours and demonstrates its noble lineage.

If biennials are not for you there is a perennial honesty Lunaria rediviva that is an exceptionally beautiful plant. It has a simple grace with yard-high stems clothed in fresh green heart-shaped leaves. Its cross-shaped flowers are pale lavender and sweetly scented. They are followed by elliptical seed-heads with the same papery texture as those of Lunaria annua.

Growing tips

To sow the plant yourself start collecting seed now. Spread out the heads on a piece of drawing paper when they are dry and crisp. Each disc is composed of twin circular plates locked together and enclosing three large flat seeds. These are also disc-shaped.

At the top of each case is a tiny protuberance that you pull like a ring-pull on a can to peel off one layer. The three seeds stick to this thin skin, leaving the backing-sheet clean and translucently silver, still attached to the stalk.

Some can be sown in situ, where they should survive and flourish. Others can be sprinkled on loam-based seed compost, covered with grit and kept in a warm, light place.

They are big seeds and if they are station-sown – one to a module compartment or in separate pots – they can develop individually and be planted out without root disturbance. When sowing in situ, cover the seed lightly and water well. If planting from modules or seed trays dig in a little old compost first.

Honesty develops thick storage roots, almost like tubers, and, in common with other brassicas, has deep tap roots. Keeping them in pots for any length of time prevents the roots developing properly and, if plants are not put out promptly, they will dwindle.

Lunaria annua will cope in most situations and seems happiest growing among other plants. In common with most brassicas it prefers lime and resents peat or very acidic conditions. Avoid overfeeding and do not use manure.

This is a plant of scrub and waste ground and needs no pampering. Lunaria rediviva prefers slightly damper conditions. Prepare the planting hole with plenty of good home-made compost or leaf-mould but, again, no muck.

Good companions

White tulips – Tulipa ‘Purissima’ or Tulipa ‘Spring Green’ – are especially eye-catching when planted with the white-flowered honesty Lunaria annua ‘Alba Variegata’.

If this is all too tasteful, mix the purple-flowered variety with orange tulips – Tulipa ‘Ballerina’ is ideal and its elegant flowers are also scented.

Purple honesty is particularly good against any of the spurges, the limier the green of their bracts the better. Euphorbia polychroma or Euphorbia palustris are at their most acidic when the honesty is in flower.

For an especially dramatic contrast, why not sow either the purple or white honesty among the red-suckering stems of Cornus alba sibirica.

Where to buy

Seed suppliers

Cheshire Herbs Fourfields, Forest Road, Little Budworth, Cheshire (01829 760578). For a catalogue, send two 1st-class stamps.

Suffolk Herbs, Monks Farm, Coggeshall Road, Kelvedon, Essex CO5 9PG (www.suffolkherbs.com).

Nursery suppliers

The Beth Chatto Gardens Ltd, Elmstead Market, Colchester, Essex CO7 7DB (01206 822007).

Grow ‘Honesty’ From Seed.

Honesty Flowers In Early May

My distant cousin Amanda Dent used to grow both a purple and a white Honesty in the grounds of her observatory up high in the Black Mountains. She swore by them….said they had cosmic powers…after a couple of Cinzanos she would rabbit on to her hubby, Arthur, as to why the moons of Jupiter and the seeds of Honesty were inextricably linked by low frequency delta waves…when she had one of these bouts Arthur would refer to her as ‘Expanding Mandy’.

…It is for this reason that the mixed purple and white honesty that I sell in the Higgledy Seed Shop is named ‘Expanding Mandy’….thank you cousin Amanda.

How To Grow Honesty From Seed.

Honesty Seed Pods

*The first thing to be aware of is that Honesty is a biennial…so a summer sowing will not produce flowers until the following spring…but don’t let this put you off as they arrive when there will be little else in your cut flower patch…and the seed heads will add plenty of interest to the patch right through the winter.

*Honesty seeds will happily grow in a poor soil…but add some homemade compost if you can to give the soil an organic material boost…this will help it retain water and keep lots of juicy oxygen around her roots. DON’T add manure…too rich a soil and she will have a hissy fit and keel over.

*Although you can start your seeds off in pots, I prefer to direct sow…you can do this from mid May…but I usually wait until June…this way, if I have little space I can sow between rows of now established annuals. Though please keep in mind, I am a trained professional…with a hat and everything…you may not want to try this at home.

*Make sure your bed is completely free of weeds and that your soil is raked to a fine tilth.

*I sow mine (as always) in straight drills…water the drills before you sow the seed…and only give them the very lightest covering of earth.

*Honesty will reseed year in year out if it likes the conditions.

Biennial Seed Collection 20% off!

* I space mine to about a foot apart.

Try growing them in a dedicated biennial bed with Foxgloves and Hesperis for an early show in the spring.

Trivia: In American they call Honesty the ‘Money Plant’…we don’t in the UK…mainly because ‘Money Plant’ is a very silly name.

I sell Honesty ‘Expanding Mandy’ at £1.95 for 75ish seeds.

Growing Honesty from seed is good for your soul…just ask cousin Amanda…when she gets out.

Kind regards

Ben

Lunaria annua is an old fashioned dual purpose plant, grown partly for its fragrant bright flowers in spring and summer but also for its unique seed-heads. Oval and translucent, gleaming with an eerie silver light and coveted by dried-flower arrangers.
It is properly grown as a biennial, and makes large, well-branched plants in its second year. However, smaller plants can be grown as hardy annuals from an early sowing, with a smaller flower display, but very good compact seed-heads.
Lunnaria really does brighten up our gardens in the winter where the distinctive and striking seed heads can provide a really stunning display during the months when even the best planned gardens can lack visual interest.
Historically, Lunnaria provided a similar role indoors. With a scarcity of dried flower varieties available, Honesty plants were harvested in the Autumn and hung upside down to dry. Then, during the mid-Winter months, they were arranged in vases to brighten up the home
Honesty blooms in rich, purples, pinks and starry bi-coloured combinations which are almost fluorescent at sunset. It is a vital nectar plant and therefore popular with bees and butterflies, very easy to grow, normally self-seeding itself in sunny or shady positions.
Over a long season it produces masses of silvery pods. When dried, the green outer covering peels off to reveal the silvery translucent “silver pennies” or “dollars”.

Sowing: Sow in spring to late summer.
Seeds can be sown directly where they are to grow otherwise they can be simply sprinkled on loam-based seed compost, covered with grit and kept in a warm, light place.

Sowing Direct:
Sow thinly outdoors directly where they are to flower, in drills 3mm (1/8in) deep. 30cm (12in) apart. Keep the soil damp until germination takes place and if the seedlings become crowded, thin out to 15cm (6in) apart. Cover the seed lightly and water well.

Sowing Indoors:
Sow the large seeds one to a module compartment or in separate pots – where they can develop individually and be planted out without root disturbance. Use a loam-based seed compost, cover with grit and kept in a warm, light place.
Honesty develops thick storage roots, almost like tubers, and, in common with other brassicas, has deep tap roots. Keeping them in pots for any length of time prevents the roots developing properly and, if plants are not put out promptly, they will dwindle.
Prepare the planting hole with plenty of good home-made compost or leaf-mould. Plant out when all frosts have gone.

Cultivation:
Lunaria annua needs no pampering; it will cope in most situations and seems happiest growing among other plants. Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil. It prefers partial shade but will tolerate full sun. In common with most brassicas it prefers lime and resents peat or very acidic conditions. Avoid overfeeding and do not use manure.

Drying:
The key to getting good “silver pennies” is to make sure that the seed pods are perfectly dry. Cut the stems bearing seed pods and hang in bunches upside down in a cool airy room to dry. Once dry, gently remove the outer seed casing before using them for floral decoration.

Collecting Seed:
Spread out the flower heads on a piece of drawing paper when they are dry and crisp. Each disc is composed of twin circular plates locked together and enclosing three large flat seeds. These are also disc-shaped.
At the top of each case is a tiny protuberance that you pull like a ring-pull on a can to peel off one layer. The three seeds stick to this thin skin, leaving the backing-sheet clean and translucently silver, still attached to the stalk.

Plant Uses:
Cottage/Informal Garden, Flower Arranging, Flowers Borders and Beds. Butterfly and Wildflower Gardens.

Origin;
Although not a true native of the British Isles. Lunaria annua is originally of European origin, Lunaria annua is common in gardens and it is often found naturalised as a garden escapee.

Nomenclature:
The genus name Lunaria is derived from the Latin luna meaning moon, pertaining to the big round fruits of the plant. The species name annua is from the Latin annu meaning year, however the plant is typically biennial.
A member of the Brassicaceae or Cruciferae, also known as the crucifers, the mustard family or cabbage family is a family of flowering plants. Cruciferae is an older name, meaning “cross-bearing”, because the four petals of their flowers are reminiscent of a cross.

Effect of different media and sowing date on growth indexes of honesty plant (Lunaria annua L.)

Keywords

money plant, planting beds, inflorescence, fruits

Introduction

Honesty Plant (Lunaria annua L.) belongs to Cruciferea. This biannual plant is a 0.9 meter height and grows throughout Europe and North America and it is sometimes cultivated as ornamental plant. This plant was introduced several centuries ago from east of Europe to north of Europe .Lunaria grows without any petioles and having toothed leaves and odorless flowers, this plant flowers in spring (April to June) . In addition to its beauty, this plant produces beautiful violet and white flowers and can be used at home as the ornamental plants for several years after full growth of fruits (coins) and harvesting the fruit inflorescence, Walker et al announced that the best cultivation date for this plant in Scotland conditions is late May up to mid-June and the best time for harvesting is late August to September. The effect of the cultivation date on growth of Honesty Plant has been assessed in south of England and it has been reported that 30 to 40 percents of the cultivated seeds have grown to the complete plants .

The commercial production of the ornamental plants is a world business. Their economical value has significantly increased in the past two decades and there is much potential for continuous flower culture in future either in local markets or in international ones. The Netherlands excels in exports of ornamental plants including potted plants such as Begonia, Ficus, Cyclamen, Philodendron, Saintpaulia, Spathiphyllum and Rhododendron . Iran has just commenced serious investment to produce ornamental plants. The main investment was done by private sector and the government just participates indirectly in producing lawns, flowers, shrubs and the ornamentals. It may be said that only 5 percents of the production is performed by the public section and the rest (95 percents) by the private sector .One of the objectives of the developing countries is to achieve the stable economical growth. Flowers and the ornamentals are of the products attainable in many parts of Iran and enjoy high capability on foreign currency earning and can be placed as one of the main non-oil goods in country exports. During the recent decades, the development world trade of ornamental plants caused to propel the advanced countries to perform specialized researches in the field of these products .The selection of the cultivation bed is an important and effective factor on the quality of seedling .The first criterion for a commercial cultivation bed is optimal growth of the plants and the continuous accessibility in an economic manner. Commercial cultivation bed should reserve water with suitable drainage and preparing appropriate placement of roots, should be devoid of toxic materials, pests and diseases .The producers need cultivated bed which is permanent and stable, accessible, easily usable and reasonable in cost. The optimal physical and chemical features of the cultivation beds and their compounds are among the features that are of main concern. The main physical features are the total percent of porosities, the capacity of water reservation, the percentage of air porosities, volume density, distribution and the particle size. The main chemical features include pH, concentration of soluble salt and the cation exchange capacity .

The cultivation bed should be penetrable and have adequate strength and stability to hold the plant firmly .Numbiar and Fife and Oliet et al reported that by optimizing the physical conditions of soil, the bed of seed will cause an increase in the seed germination, the growth of the root and seedling growth. Faraz et al and Brito et al found that adding organic materials of soil makes improvement of properties on germination percent, daily mean germination and germination rate. Kazemi reported that the most amount of vegetative and generative growth of the ornamental pepper was acquired in the beds containing 25, 50 and 100 percent of tea waste compost.

Griffin reported that perlitee does not have any effect on the chemicalfeatures of the bed. Despite many organic compounds, perlitee will not decompose. Based on Khalighi et al research, Azolla compost caused to produce the most number of leaves in Beaucarnea and the Coco-peat beds had the least ones. The most amount of the leaf length was reported in Azolla compost 50% + Perlitee 50%, while the least amount was reported in the beds of Coco- Peat 50% + Perlitee 50%. The aim of this research was comparison of different growth beds and planting date on the vegetative indexes of honesty plant in Guilan province (northern part of Iran).

Materials and Methods

In order to assess the effect of the cultivation dates and various cultivation beds on Honesty plants, an experiment was performed in the form of split plot based on complete block design with two factors and in three replications. The experimental factors included dates of cultivation (3 levels) and cultivation beds (4 levels) are described below: Cultivation date (A) in three levels includes: a1= September 10, a2= October 11 and a3= November 10.

Measurements of Plant Growth Indexes

Measuring the length, width and number of leaves and height of plant was performed every 15 days. The time of germination, time of ripping and drying of fruit were also been registered; the size and number of the fruits measured. In addition to the features related to the experimental plant, the specific particle density and apparent specific density of trial beds was measured (Table 1).

Table 1: The specific particle density and apparent specific density of experimental beds

The data analysis of variance was performed by the MSTATC Software and the test of comparison on data mean was carried out based on Tukey test.

Results and Discussion

The table of analysis variance shows the effect of experimental factors on the growth indexes such as the length of Honesty plant leaf was significant (p<0.05). In addition, the effect of cultivation bed and the interaction of these two factors have also significantly caused a change on the leaf length (Table 2).

Table 2: Analysis variance of the effect of experimental factors on the growth parameters of Honesty plant

Analysis variance of the data shows that the effect of the cultivation date has been significant on the leaf width in the level of 5 percent. Whereas, the effect of cultivation bed did not show the significant effect on the leaf width only in primary stages after cultivation (40 days) and in other cases up to the end of the experiment, it caused significant difference in the size of the leaf width. It is worth to mention that the interaction of “cultivation date × cultivation bed” has had a significant effect on the leaf width (Table 2). The analysis variance of data shows that the effect of cultivation date on the plant height has statistically been significant in the whole experiment period (after commencement of the new season of growth), whereas the effect of cultivation bed and the interaction of experimental factors have been significant in the stage of active growth of the plant (spring). Based on results (Table 2), the effect of date and cultivation bed in the whole stage of measurements has had a significant effect on the number of the leaves. Whereas the interaction of cultivation “date × bed” in the primary stages of measurements, has not been significant effect on the number of the experimented plants leaves. This property (number of leaves) shows the significant difference under the interaction of experimental factors after commencement of the new growth season.

Mir-Shekari and Mobasher have reported that the cultivation date and the bulb size of the Allium cepa have significant effect on the performance of the seed and the height of the stem. Faraji has concluded similar results based on the effect of cultivation date on the height of rapeseed and has announced that the early cultivation of rapeseed improves the plant height more than any other cultivation dates. These results are in conformity with the acquired results at this experiment.

By commencement of the new growth season, the leaves of cultivated plants in the months of October and November increased their growth, and in the last measurement, the length of the leaves of these plants was more than the length of the leaves cultivated in the month of September. It seems that one of the reasons for this increase in leave length in the late cultivated plants is their lack of generative growth (Table 3). Based on the comparison of the related data mean, the average leaf width has changed after commencement of the new growth in the month of March and the most leaf width concerns the months of October or November, while the least is related to the month of September and also in the last measurement, the least leaf width (6.57 cm) referred to the month of September and the most leaf width (9.94 cm) to the month of November. The comparison of the data mean related to the effect of the experimental factors on the height of Honesty plants shows that the plants cultivated in the month of September have grown to their maximum amount of height, i.e., 43.58 cm, and they have constituted the most height to themselves. The most number of the acquired leaves in each 4 sampling (measurement) stages is concerned to the cultivation date in the September and the least to the cultivation date in the November.

Table 3: The Comparison of the data mean related to the effect of the cultivation date on growth indexes of Honesty plant

These results show the increased number of leaves on the September cultivated. In an assessment on the effect of the cultivation date on growth indexes of sugar beet in autumn cultivation, Javaheri et al found that the first cultivation date causes the most leaf area index, and the leaf area ratio in the first cultivation date (Aug. 31) has been more than the other two cultivation dates (Sept. 22 and Oct. 11), but this process has reversed in the end of the growth season, and considering the leaf size, these results are in conformity with the results acquired by our experiment. During the experiment period, average number of the leaves on each plant has increased more than twice and the maximum number of the leaves (19.6 leaves) has been acquired in the cultivation date of September. 120 days after cultivation, the acquired results were as follows:

The most length of the leaves was obtained under “soil + tea wastes” treatment (with 6.36 cm) and the least length of leaves related to “soil + perlite” medium (with 4.38 cm). Kazemi in an experiment on ornamental pepperfound that the most number and size of the leaves are related to the bed of “soil 50% + compost of tea wastes 50%”.

On the basis of Masterbroek and Marvin research, the delay on cultivation of Lunaria plant will delay the floral initiation and harvesting time, so that in the last date of cultivation, a few plants succeed to flower. These results are in conformity with the acquired results at this experiment. Based on our results almost in the most times of measurements, the soil bed has had a considerable priority on the other beds, although the combination of “soil+ tea waste” causes to acquire the most plant height and number of the leaves. On the basis of the data mean in the primary stages of growth, soil mixed with the organic material, i.e. Azolla or tea waste caused to increased leaf width. Whereas, at the end (in the last measurement before flowering), the soil, has been the best bed for growing of leaf width, but it does not statistically show significant difference with combination of “soil + tea wastes”. The comparison of interact mean of the experimental factors (Table 5) on the leaf length showed that the most leaf length was produced under cultivation of this plant, in the “garden soil” in the October with length of 10.98 cm. Whereas the least leaf length has acquired under treatment with “Azolla + soil x the month of Sept. cultivation; although the most leaf length has statistically acquired under the most experimented soil compounds, i.e. the interaction of the most treatment has not statistically had significant difference from each other.

Table 4: Comparison of Data Mean Related to the Effect of Cultivation Beds on Growth Indexes of Honesty plant

Table 5: The mean comparison of “cultivation date and bed “on the traits of Honesty plant

The comparison of interaction mean of experimental factors on leaf width of Honesty plant (Table 5) shows that after 120 days of cultivation, the most leaf width of this plant has acquired under “tea wastes + soil × Oct. planting date” with 9.36 cm; whereas the least width of leaf on this plant with 3.62 cm is related to cultivation of “Azolla + soil x the month Nov.”.

Comparison of interaction mean of experimental factors on height of Honesty plant showed that the most height has been acquired in plants that have been cultivated in “soil + tea wastes” bed in the October; whereas the least height has been related to the cultivation in the Sept. or Oct. and in bed of “soil + perlite” (13.67 cm). Also, May sampling, the most height has been related to cultivation of plant in the Sept. and bed of “soil + tea wastes” with 64.61 cm and the least height related to cultivation Oct. and bed of “soil + perlite” with 17.61 cm. Assessment of effects of beds on height shows that “soil + tea wastes” compounds was the best. Whereas, the comparison of interaction mean on cultivation date and the bed shows that soil bed + tea wastes cause the most height in the early new season of growth and finally the same soil compound has caused the most height in cultivation date of September.Shadanpour et al found that application of organic media such as vermicompost increased significantly shoot size and weight in Marigold.

The comparison of interaction mean of experimental factors on the number of leaves (Table 5) shows that the most number of leaves of this plant is acquired under cultivation in the month Sept. and the bed of “soil + tea waste”; whereas, the least number of the leaves was obtained under plants cultivated in the month Nov. in the bed of “soil + Azolla” or in the bed of “soil + perlite”.

Assessment of the growth indexes such as leaf size, plant height and number of leaves showed that the cultivation date has had a significant effect on all of the above-mentioned features. Before commencement of the new growth season, mostly the size of the plant leaves which were cultivated in the months Sept. or Oct. are more than the size of the plant leaves cultivated in the Nov. But by commencement of the new growth season, the size of the plant leaves cultivated in the month Nov. has increased and in the month May and late of the growth season (before flowering) the biggest size of leaves have been related to the plants which were cultivated in the Nov. Ahmad et al. and Koet al found that earlier planting produced the well developed plants of gladiolus.

Cromack stated that the condition of winter “vernalization” of Lunaria plant is prepared for cultivation dates of the months of June and July. But it is incomplete for cultivation date of September and will not remove the chilling requirement for plants and the yield of plants which have been cultivated late, will significantly be less than other plants (early cultivated plants). It seems that lack of flowering of most trial plants is because of being incompleteness of their chilling period.

Hashemabadi and Sedaghathoor announced that the delay in cultivation of Mazandarian broad bean can cause reduction on number of nodes, plant height, percent of dry matter of seeds and number of branches, so that the early cultivation date has caused the noticeable increasing of the above-mentioned features in comparison with the late cultivation date.

PasbanEslam reported that by delaying the cultivation day of fall rapeseed, fromSept. 10 to Sept. 30, the crown diameter, number of the leaves per plant and the percent of chilled plants will significantly increase. He announced that delay in cultivation, the yield of seed and oil will significantly be less. His results on the effect of cultivation date on the number of leaves are in conformity with the results of this experiment. The comparison of the effect on the data mean of cultivation bed on the number of the leaves (Table 5) showed that the most number of leaves have acquired in various stages of measurement in plants which were cultivated in bed of “soil + tea wastes”, whereas the least number of leaves have been related to the plants which cultivated in “soil” or in “soil + Perlite” beds. Therefore, the same as the plant height, soil bed together with tea waste has had the best results in leaf number. So, on the basis of this experiment, to cultivate Honesty Plant in Guilan conditions, it is recommended the beds with garden soil mixed with organic materials such as tea wastes and cultivation date in the month Sept. or before September. It is recommended to assess other cultivation dates such as cultivation of this plant from the middle of summer afterward. Based on the results of this experiment, Lunaria is mainly bush and grows without branches and the leaves of the bed surface are larger than the upper leaves. The inflorescence type of this plant is simple cluster with about 63 florets and in purple and white colors and the fruit type of this plant is silique and it is estimated that the growth period of this plant is 220 days in Guilan conditions (as from cultivation to fruiting). Number of the flowering stalk is one and the germination period of this seeds is about 3 weeks and the number of fruits per plant is about 43. Numbers of seed per fruit are 2 to 8 and the weight of 1000 seeds is about 10 grams.

Acknowledgement

Authors would like to thank Dr. Ali MohammadiTorkashvand (Research Office Manager of Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch) for financial supports.

Lunaria annua – Honesty

Phylum: Magnoliophyta – Class: Equisetopsida – Order: Brassicales – Family: Brassicaceae

Many spring wildflowers have to struggle through rank vegetation, but Honesty is much taller than most and usually manages to stand head and shoulders above the crowd. Being gregarious, these plants make wonderful floral display, usually purple or mauve but sometimes pure white, that are visible from afar. In autumn they are just as conspicuous, because of their translucent coin-shaped seedpods that shimmer in the sunlight and rustle in the breeze.

Typically 40 to 90cm tall, Honesty has square hairy stems and large oval to heart-shaped leaves, the lower ones stalked and the upper ones stalkless.They alternate up the sparsely branching stems. Stems terminate in racemes of four-petalled flowers typically 2.5-3cm across.

Distribution

Common and widespread as an introduced plant now seen throughout Britain and Ireland, Honesty is also found throughout much of mainland Europe; however, it originated from the Balkans and southwest Asia. Its popularity as a garden flower means that colonies are most often seen near to towns and villages.

The serrate leaves of Honesty are alternate up the square hairy stems.

Habitat

Honesty thrives in partial shade beneath hedgerows and on woodland edges as well as in sheltered ditches and stream banks. Look out for this plant also on scrubby wasteland and in old uncultivated orchards.

Flowering times

This spring wildflower can usually be seen blooming in Britain and Ireland from late April to the end of June.

Etymology

Lunaria, the genus name, means moon-shaped and is a reference to the dried seedpods, which resemble a full moon. Although in some countries this plant can be an annual, in Britain at least it is nearly always a biennial – despite its specific epithet annua which suggests that it is an annual.

The coin-shaped seedpods, typically 3-4.5cm across, are green initially but dry out and become translucent.

Uses

Apart from its popularity as an old-fashioned garden wildflower, Honesty is much loved by Orange-tip butterflies and, in southern France for example, by the lovely Provencal Orange-tip.

The pictures of Honesty in bloom shown on this page were taken in southern France during April and in Wales during May..

We hope that you have found this information helpful. If so we are sure you would find our books Wonderful Wildflowers of Wales, vols 1 to 4, by Sue Parker and Pat O’Reilly very useful too. Buy copies here…

Other nature books from First Nature…

Lunaria annua
L.

Anther attachment the anther is attached by its base to the filament Anther color the anthers show no hint of a pink, reddish or purplish tint Anther length 2–3 mm Anther opening the anthers have narrow slits or furrows that run lengthwise along the anthers Anther spurs the anthers do not have spurs on them Anther tube length 0 mm Calyx growth after flowering the calyx does not grow to cover or partially cover the fruit Calyx symmetry there are two or more ways to evenly divide the calyx (the calyx is radially symmetrical) Carpels fused the carpels are fused to one another Cilia on petals the petal margins do not have cilia Cleistogamous flowers there are no cleistogamous flowers on the plan Corolla morphology NA Corolla palate no Corona lobe length 0 mm Epicalyx the flower does not have an epicalyx Epicalyx number of parts 0 Filament length 5–8 mm Filament surface the filament is smooth, with no hairs or scales Flower appearance the flowers appear after the leaves have appeared Flower description the flower has a superior ovary, and lacks a hypanthium Flower diameter 20 mm Flower number 10–20 Flower orientation the flower points upwards or is angled outwards Flower petal color

  • blue to purple
  • white

Flower reproductive parts the flower has both pollen- and seed-producing parts Flower symmetry there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical) Flowers sunken into stem no Form of style

  • the style is knob-like at the tip, and unbranched
  • the style is lobed at the tip, and unbranched

Fringed petal edges the petals are not fringed Fused stamen clusters NA Fusion of sepals and petals both the petals and sepals are separate and not fused Hairs on flower stalk

  • the flower stalk has hairs on it
  • the flower stalk has no hairs on it

Hairs on inflorescence

  • the axis of the inflorescence has hairs entirely without glands
  • the axis of the inflorescence has no hairs on it

Horns in hoods (Asclepias) NA Hypanthium the flower does not have a hypanthium Hypanthium length 0 mm Inflorescence length Up to 200 mm Inflorescence one-sided the flowers are arrayed in a spiral around the inflorescence axis or branches, or occur singly, or in several ranks Inner tepals (Rumex) NA Interior flower disk the flower does not have an interior disc Length of flower stalk 7–15 mm Marks on petals there are no noticeable marks on the petals Nectar spur the flower has no nectar spurs Number of branches in umbel 0 Number of carpels 2 Number of pistils 1 Number of sepals, petals or tepals there are four petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower Number of styles 1 Ovary position the ovary is above the point of petal and/or sepal attachment Perianth shape the perianth is rotate (platter-shaped, the corolla flattened, circular, with nearly horizontally spreading lobes) Petal and sepal arrangement the flower includes two cycles of petal- or sepal-like structures Petal and sepal colors

  • blue to purple
  • white

Petal appearance the petals are thin and delicate, and pigmented (colored other than green or brown) Petal base the petal narrows abruptly at the base Petal folds or pleats the petals of the flower do not have folds or plaits Petal glandular dots or scales no Petal hairs (Viola) NA Petal hairs on inner/upper surface there are no hairs on the inner/upper petal surface Petal length 15–30 mm Petal length relative to sepals the petals are longer than the sepals Petal nectaries the petals do not have nectaries Petal number 4 Petal shape the petal outline is obovate (roughly egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade) Petal tip shape the petal tip is obtuse (bluntly pointed) Petal tips (Cuscuta) NA Petal width 5–10 mm Raceme attachment (Veronica) NA Reproductive system all the flowers have both carpels and stamens (synoecious) Scales inside corolla no Sepal and petal color the sepals are different from the petals Sepal appearance the sepals resemble petals in color and texture Sepal appendages the sepals do not have appendages on them Sepal appendages (Oenothera) NA Sepal auricles the sepals have no auricles Sepal color blue to purple Sepal features one or more sepals are arched and enfolding, hood-shaped Sepal length 5–10 mm Sepal number 4 Sepal orientation the sepals are pressed against the corolla, or jutting stiffly upward Sepal relative length NA Sepal shape

  • the sepal outline is eliiptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
  • the sepal outline is linear (extremely narrow, thread-like)
  • the sepal outline is oblong (rectangular, but with rounded ends)

Sepal texture the sepals are either very thin but flexible, like a membrane, or they are leaf-like in texture Sepal tip shape the sepal tip is obtuse (is bluntly pointed) Sepal uniformity one or more of the sepals is much narrower or shorter than the others Sepals fused only to sepals the sepals are separate from one another Spur length 0 mm Spur number NA Stamen appendages stamen appendages are absent Stamen attachment the stamens are not attached to the petals or tepals Stamen length 7–11 mm Stamen lengths differ the stamens are tetradynamous (four long stamens and two short ones) Stamen morphology the stamens within a cycle differ in length or width Stamen number 6 Stamen position relative to petals NA Stamen relative length anything Stamens fused the stamens are not attached to one another Staminodes there are no staminodes on the flower Stigma position the stigmas are positioned at the tip of the style Style length 4–10 mm Style petal-like the styles are not petal-like Style relative length NA Umbel flower reproductive parts NA Upper lip of bilabiate corolla NA

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