How to Grow Fallopia Russian Vine ‘Mile A Minute Plant’

Fallopia baldschuanica known as Russian Vine and Mile a Minute plant is very easy to grow, so easy you cannot stop it growing and it is invasive. This climber is very vigorous, in reality it can be rampant and hard to control. Ideal if you have a large space or structure you want to cover, but it comes with a gardening health warning as it grows quickly and can easily outgrow its welcome.

On the plus side, as the images show, it really has lovely delicate flowers and attractive foliage. It is a deciduous climbing plant, which means it is not evergreen and drops its leaves in the autumn. It looks good trailing over walls, as shown in the image below. It is very easy to grow, try stopping it; Russian Vine will grow almost anywhere although Fallopia do prefer sun where it will flower best, and with well-drained soil. It is tolerant of semi shade, and of poor soil and it is fully hardy down to H7. A rich soil will tend to produce more leaves than flowers. From this you can rightly guess it will grow pretty well anywhere.

In terms of how to grow Fallopia, it is really a case of plant it and watch it grow. It is self supporting by its tendrils and when newly planted, like all new plants, water it well initially to ensure it does not dry out. It will grow up to 12m which is around 40ft. Fallopia grows very fast and may smother any other plants in its way.

It is invasive in more than one way. It does grow very fast and will out compete anything in its way, scrambling its way to the top. However, it also has shoots which will not only twine but can force their way into cracks and spaces. This means if Russian Vine is grown over a structure, such as a shed, it can find its way into the building which is destructive to the structure and can cause problems.

It belongs to pruning group 11 and can be pruned in the Spring. However, it would be hard work and optimistic to think that a Russian Vine could be kept in check by regular pruning. There not enough pruning hours in the day bearing in mind it can grow 12 meters in a season. It makes Wisteria look timid. Its size and fast growth means that it is a climber that you only plant if you really need this type of plant. I once inherited a Fallopia which grew over a not very well maintained out building, into which the vine quickly forced it’s tendrils and within a short period of time the building became even less well maintained.

The Russian Vine, in common with some other vigorous, climbing plants, can cause damage to structures. In my outbuilding it forced its way into cracks and did cause some damage. Equally if you have a structure that you want hide, although deciduous, the Russian Vine will quickly do this. It is a woody climber which once established has very significant roots and thus not easy to remove if you decided it’s the wrong plant.

If you inherit a “Mile a minute plant” and want to get rid of it there are two basic ways. If you garden organically it is the hard work route, firstly chopping it down and removing all traces. Then you have to dig out the root completely to stop it coming back. The alternative is to try and kill it with a weedkiller containing Glyphosate, which is found in many weed killers such as “Roundup”, and it is likely you will need to reapply several times. Bear in mind as a weedkiller “Roundup” will kill everything it comes into contact with it needs to be used carefully.

Bear in mind also, that the other common name of Fallopia baldschuanica is the ‘Mile a Minute’ plant which says it all, and not for nothing is it also known as this.

It is tough, trouble free, long flowering and attractive to bees so the Russian Vine does have a lot going for it, but it can be uncontrollable and a very fast grower.

Still looking for the ideal climbing plant? Take a look at Climbing plants for ideas on all sorts of climbing plants including detailed advice on Clematis. On this and other pages there are images and growing advice for many popular climbing plants such as Wisteria, Honeysuckle, Passion flower, Ivy and many more.

Scientific name: Hypericum calycinum


Common names: “St. John’s wort” “Rose of Sharon”

Plant Type: Evergreen shrub, groundcover


Zone: 5-9

Light: Full sun best – deep shade = no flowers

Exposure: Exposed

Soil: Any

Moisture: Moist well drained – drought


Plant Size: H 12-18″ W 80′ spreading groundcover

Leaf and Stem shape: Small, ovate, green leaves

Flower: Golden-yellow, bowl-shaped flowers appear singly or in small clusters near the ends of branches in summer

Pruning: None required but it can be cut low in February to 1″

Maintenance: Low – zero, can be left for years if grown in the right conditions

Landscape use: Groundcover, erosion control, tree and shrub underplanting

Propagate: By cuttings, easily by division and layering, spreads aggressive underground runners

Pests & Disease: Hypericum rust is on the island

Comments: Not the invasive species of St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum on BC invasive list), but it should be on there considering how vigorously it grows and competes, other none spreading spp. might be a better choice for your mixed flower bed, excellent choice for a contained low maintenance garden though

Brass buttons is an unusual groundcover.

Brass buttons, Leptinella squalida (formerly Cotula squalida), is an unusual, very low-growing plant in the daisy family (Compositae). This is one of about 30 species in this genus occurring in Australasia and southern South America. In its native New Zealand this creeping herbaceous perennial is found in open, damp places in lowland to sub-alpine regions of North, South and Stewart Islands. Hardy in zones 4-10, it only grows about half an inch to 2” high but spreads to form dense mats of foliage.

The tiny leaves resemble fern fronds.

The feathery or fern-like leaves are a dull grayish-green with gray, purple, and black tints. The delicate-looking leaves grow up to 2” long and ½“ wide (but are often much smaller). This species is evergreen in milder climates (zones 9-10); its leaves will remain under snow cover in colder climates (although they turn rather reddish or dark colored rather than their normal green), but plants die back to the ground when exposed. If plants do die back over the winter they will not look their best early in the spring. The leaves fill in by late spring and look good throughout the rest of the growing season. In autumn they turn a bronze, brassy or purple color.

Plants will die back in cold climates, producing new leaves again in early spring.

Tiny, yellowish-green to gold flowers are produced in spring. They are composed of just the central disk flowers of the normal daisy flower (called disciform), and minus the white ray flowers, they appear something like miniature buttons – giving rise to the common name of brass buttons.

The tiny gold flowers give this plant its common name of brass buttons.

Flowers are followed by tiny capsular fruit. The flowers and fruit are not very conspicuous, however, partly because of the size, but also because of the color that doesn’t stand out from the foliage. Because of its short stature and small flowers, most people don’t bother to deadhead plantings. However, a lawn mower could be used to remove spent flowers on larger plantings.

Brass buttons does best in full sun in cooler climates, but needs part shade in hotter climates. It prefers acidic, loamy soil rich in organic matter, but adapts to many other soil types. Because it is very shallow rooted, it does best with annual fertilization except in very fertile soils. It is not drought tolerant and needs regular watering, especially on light soils. It does not do well in compacted soil, and may need to be lifted and replaced after loosening and amending the soil if it is languishing after a few years. It has few insect or disease problems.

Leptinella squalida ‘Platt’s Black’

This plant spreads aggressively by rhizomatous runners just under or on the soil surface. In heavy clay it spreads more slowly than when grown on light soils. It will continue to spread indefinitely as new sections root. It can be easily propagated by division in spring or early fall – just dig up a clump, cut it into pieces and move it to another spot. Space newly purchased plants about a 9-12” apart.

Brass buttons is typically used as a ground cover for small areas, in rock gardens and as a turf substitute in mild climates. It tolerates very light foot traffic, so it is well suited to grow between flagstones or along the edges of pathways. Combine it with Scotch moss (Sagina subulata) for good contrast in texture between stepping stones. It can be a good stand-in for moss in places that are too sunny for most mosses, or makes an interesting addition to containers as a ground cover under larger plants.

Leptinella perpusilla

The very small scale of L. squalida would make it a good addition to a railroad garden or other miniature landscape for its fern-like appearance.

The most common variety is ‘Platt’s Black’ which was a sport discovered in the garden of Jane Platt of Portland, Oregon. This variety has nearly black leaves with a bright green tip and dark-colored flowers. Some people like it, but other think it looks blighted or dying. It looks particularly good in contrast with bright green, gold or chartreuse-foliaged companion plants, such as golden Scotch moss. Other similar species may also be offered, including L. perpusilla.

– Susan Mahr, University of Wisconsin – Madison

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The fern-like New Zealand brass buttons plant is a great alternative to your lawn, but you might be concerned about how to grow it successfully.

Brass buttons are feathery-looking black and green plants that are easy to plant and easy to maintain. Botanically known as Leptinella gruveri, these plants are native to New Zealand, South America and the Falkland Islands.

They can be found in open, damp places, forming a dense mat of foliage, making them perfect as a ground cover plant. The name of this creeping herbaceous perennial comes from its cluster of flowers that give it its button-like appearance.

Brass button plants in your lawn can add aesthetic appeal to your landscape. The best part? They require little maintenance and grow fast!


Common Name: Brass button plant
Scientific Name: Leptinella gruveri
Family: Asteraceae
Origin: New Zealand, South America, and the Falkland Islands
Height: 1/2″ to 2″
Light: Partial shade to full sun
Water: Even, regular watering
Soil: Tolerates most soil conditions
Blooms: June-July
Flower: Tiny yellow green flowers
Leaf: Small, delicate 2″ long flowers
Foliage: Grayish-green (tints of purple and black)

Types of Miniature Brass Buttons

There are a few different varieties of Leptinella plants to consider when planting out your ground cover landscape.

Platt’s Black Brass Button

Black foliage with yellow white flowers. Source: D.Eickhoff

This variety of Leptinella gruveri is a perfect option for planting along the edges of the pathways or between flagstones. They’ve got feathery, bronze or black foliage.

They bear miniature green flowers during the summer season. They grow perfectly in a soil that doesn’t dry out completely and when watered well, can spread out and form a dense mat.

Leptinella squalida

Dense, light-green matted foliage. Source: Mollivan Jon

Forming a mass of tiny fern-like leaves, pressed tightly against each other, Leptinella squalida is a variety of brass button with a greenish bronze look. It can grow up to 2″ (5cm) tall and has evergreen foliage.

You can use this particular type to form a turf-like carpet. It can spread up to 8″ and can be grown in most types of soil. It produces yellow and green flowers in June and July.

Leptinella gruveri

Classic darker green foliage. Source: MeganEHansen

If you’re looking for a filler to cover up gaps between flagstones in moist and shady areas, this is one of the best perennials to consider. It forms evergreen foliage that quickly fills gaps and helps keep the weeds at bay.

You can use it as a lawn substitute for smaller areas. Its green flowers that bloom during early and mid-summer are gorgeous but also blend in to the landscape. Be it a container, rock garden or small lawn, Leptinella gruveri can make any place it’s planted in look great.

Leptinella minor

White flowers, whispy foliage. Source: Mollivan Jon

This variety has tiny, feather-like, evergreen foliage with a deep green and bronze tinge. Leptinella minor is a kind of brass buttons plant that’s easy to grow in all sorts of soil. You’ve to keep watering it regularly to avoid the soil from drying out.

You can easily propagate it by dividing the clump and slicing them into small pieces in spring or early fall. It works very well as a ground cover for alpine trough gardens or forming a moss-like carpet in containers.

Caring for Leptinella Plants

New Zealand brass buttons plants are extremely low-maintenance. Being the perfect filler for pathways and narrow corridors, all you need to do is water them regularly and mow them regularly to avoid overgrowth.

Here’s a quick rundown on how to take care of this evergreen herbaceous groundcover.


It needs a decent amount of sunlight. If you live in cooler climates, a preferable location would be somewhere that gets at least 6 hours of sunlight per day. However, in hotter climates, brass buttons tend to grow better in partially shady areas.


You’ll have to water your brass buttons frequently. They’re intolerant to drought and depend on regular watering for survival. They’re shallow-rooted plants, so any period of dry soil is enough to kill them.


These plants are tolerant almost any kind of soil. However, the most critical requirement for its growth is to have well-draining soil. They prefer slightly acidic soil that’s rich in organic matter, but remain adaptable to other soil types including alkaline and neutral pH soil.

It may not grow as well in compacted, heavy clay soil. You’ll need to amend the soil before planting miniature brass buttons again.


Once your plant is well-established, only then you should fertilize it. Use a half-strength, all-purpose fertilizer. You can fertilize the plant in early spring and then in early summer. Don’t worry about fall or winter fertilizing, as the growth rate slows down during those seasons.


Repotting is easy, as they’re hardy to intensive handling. You can move them from container to container without a problem, as well as dig them up from certain areas of your yard and transplant them in others.


Once established, these plants are crazy growers and can spread quite fast. You may want to propagate it by division, splitting up the bunches and sowing them in different locations in your yard. The best season to propagate brass buttons is spring or early fall. Make sure to space the plants 9-12” apart when sowing.


To prevent overgrowth, thin 2-3 times per year. You can use a lawn mower for larger surfaces and pruning shears for smaller containers.


If you’re addressing their water needs and fertilizing them well, you shouldn’t have too many problems with this plant.

However, there are a few things you need to watch out for.

Growing Problems

Climate can affect plant growth. If you are living in a place that is dry, you’ll need to water brass buttons quite frequently to keep them in their original condition. Similarly, for light soils, regular watering is a must. Also, they have a tendency to spread indefinitely. You have to remain vigilant in pruning them to keep them from overtaking your garden.

Pests and Diseases

Brass buttons are generally pest-free. You’re unlikely to face any problems related to pest or diseases.


Q. Is New Zealand brass button a fern?

A. No, it has a fern-like appearance, but it’s not actually a fern.

Q. Can I grow brass buttons in a container and put in my room?

A. Yes! You can grow in a container as long as you place in an area of your house that gets bright, indirect light.

Q. How often do I need to fertilize?

A. Twice per year. Once in early spring and then in early summer using a half-strength, all-purpose fertilizer is sufficient for healthy growth

Q. It snows too much where I live. Is it okay to grow brass buttons in my lawn?

A. If you’re able to protect the leaves from snow, they’ll turn brown but will stay in place. Exposure to cold will cause the leaves to die and fall. New growth will come out in spring.

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Leptinella Information – Tips On Growing Brass Buttons In Gardens

Brass buttons is the common name given to the plant Leptinella squalida. This very low growing, vigorously spreading plant is a good choice for rock gardens, the spaces between flagstones, and lawns where turf won’t grow. Keep reading to learn more Leptinella information, including the growing and care of brass button plants.

Leptinella Information

Brass buttons gets its name from the small yellow to green flowers it produces in the spring. The plant is in the daisy family, and its flowers look very much like the centers of daisy flowers, minus the long white petals. These small, hard looking flowers are said to resemble buttons.

Leptinella brass button plants are native to New Zealand but are widespread now. They are hardy from USDA zones 4 through 9, though just what that means depends on the zone. In 9

and 10, the plants are evergreen and will last all year. In colder climates, the leaves may die back.

If protected by snow or mulch, the leaves will turn brown but stay in place. If exposed to the cold winter air, the leaves will die and new ones will grow in the spring. This is fine, though the new leaf growth will take a month or two to come back and the plant won’t be as attractive in the spring.

Growing Brass Buttons

Growing brass buttons in the garden is very easy. In cooler climates, the plants like full sun, but in hotter areas, they fare better with partial light shade. They will grow in a wide range of soils, though they prefer well drained, rich soil with frequent watering.

They spread aggressively through runners just underground. You may need to dig them up and separate them every now and again in order to keep them in check.

While some varieties boast green leaves, one particular variety that is very popular is called Platt’s Black, named for the garden of Jane Platt in which the plant was first documented. This variety has dark, almost black leaves with green tips and very dark flowers. Growing black brass buttons in the garden is a matter of personal taste – some gardeners think it looks on the verge of death, while others think it looks fascinating, especially interspersed with a bright green variety.

Either way, the plant makes an exceptional specimen in the garden.

Yellow Loosestrife. Photo credit: L.B., Noble County

Q) This flower/weed came up in my flower garden this year. I know that I did not plant it and two other people said that they have it growing in their yards also. I took it to our local nursery. They did not know what it was and looked it up in their books but could not find it. They gave me a few suggestions but when I looked them up on the internet, they did not match. Would you be able to identify this plant and let me know if it is just a weed that I need to be aware of or if it is indeed a flower of some sort? – L.B., Noble County

A) Weed is in the eye of the beholder. Some welcome this plant’s presence while others consider it an aggressive weed. This is a yellow loosestrife, Lysimachia, either L.punctata or L. vulgaris. These species are quite similar, with L. punctata blooming along the stem in the leaf axils while L. vulgaris blooms primarily at the top of the stems. Both species are herbaceous perennials that are native to Europe and Asia but escaped cultivation and naturalized in many areas of the U.S. and Canada. Yellow loosestrife thrives in sun or part shade. Lysimachia vulgaris is classified as an invasive species in some states and is particularly invasive in wetland habitats. Both species spread and overwinter by rhizomes (underground horizontal stems) and by seed. Yellow loosestrife is likely to wear out its welcome even if you initially appreciate its beauty. So if you choose to keep it, place it only in an area where it will not invade natural areas or your other perennials. Despite its name, yellow loosestrife belongs to the primrose family, not the loosestrife family that includes the notoriously invasive purple loosestrife.

Q) We seem to have termites attacking our rhubarb. I plan to drop a sample (gathered yesterday) at the local Purdue Extension office shortly. Any recommendations? – F.M., Greene County

A) Termites are not likely to be attacking rhubarb, since termites eat wood rather than live plants. If your rhubarb happens to be around an old decaying fence, landscape timbers or other wood scraps that would support termites, the termites could be cohabiting with your rhubarb. But it is more likely that the insects in question are not termites, but possibly ants. Ants are also not going to attack rhubarb, but they do often build nests in association with perennial plants. You’re on the right track to have the insects in question properly identified at your local Purdue Extension office. In the meantime, Purdue Entomology Extension has an excellent publication on ants that includes a discussion of how to distinguish ants from termites. See for additional information.

Appearance Lysimachia vulgaris is an herbaceous perennial with erect stems up to 3.3 ft. (1 m) in height and long, stolon-like rhizomes that can run 33 ft. (10 m) long. Foliage The leaves of this plant are opposite or whorled. They have small glands that are black or orange in color and soft hairs beneath. They are lanceolate to laceolate-ovate in shape, 2.75-4.75 in. (7-12 cm) in length and 0.6-1.5 in. (1.5-4 cm) in width. The middle and upper leaves have short petioles and are acuminate. Flowers The inflorescence is a terminal, leafy panicle that appears June-September. The flowers are have five yellow petals and are 0.5-0.75 in. (1.2-2 cm) across. The lobes of the calyx are red-margined and 0.15-0.2 in. (3.5-5 mm) long. Fruit The fruits are dry capsules. The seeds of this plant are most likely water-dispersed. However, the main method of dispersal for this plant is via rhizomes. Ecological Threat Lysimachia vulgaris presents a similar threat as the serious invasive Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife). In Washington state it has been reported as possibly outcompeting Lythrum salicaria in wetland habitats. The rhizomes spread readily. Though its populations have not yet reached the numbers of Lythrum salicaria populations, it has the potential to do so. Lysimachia vulgaris prefers moist soil, and will invade fens, wet woods, lake shores, rocky river shores and riparian zones.

Washington State

Lysimachia vulgaris

Family: Primulaceae

Other Common Names: yellow loosestrife
Weed class: B
Year Listed: 1991
Native to: Europe, Asia and Northern Africa
Is this Weed Toxic?:

not known to be

Legal listings:

WAC 16-752; WSDA Quarantine list (prohibited plant list)

Why Is It a Noxious Weed?

It is invasive perennial that can form dense stands of growth in Washington’s wetlands and shorelines. Its behavior is similar to another noxious weed, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), that it appears it can outcompete.

How would I identify it?

General Description

It is an upright, rhizomatous perennial that can grow to a height of 3 feet or more, forming dense stands. Stems and leaves are soft and hairy. Flower clusters bloom in the summer.

Flower Description

Flowers are yellow, primrose-like and occur in a cluster at the top of the plant and in the upper leaf axils (the upper angle from where the leaves and stem connect). Each flower has 5 petals and sepals with reddish-brown margins.

Leaf description

Leaves are opposite or whorled, lance-shaped, 3.1 to 4.7 inches (8-12 cm) long, dotted with black or orange glands and softly hairy.

Stem description

Stems are upright and hairy. Plants can grow up to around 6 feet in full sun and even taller in shade.

Fruit Seed Description

Seeds in capsules that open by valves.

May Be Confused With

Garden loosestrife has a cousin, (Lysimachia punctata) that is also called garden or yellow loosestrife, which looks very similar. Lysimachia vulgaris, garden loosestrife, is more likely to be found in wetland areas and has flowers that cluster at the top of the plant.

Where does it grow?

Garden loosestrife occurs in moist habitats such as fens, wet woods, lake shores, wetlands and streambanks. Please click here to see a county level distribution map of garden loosestrife in Washington.

How Does it Reproduce?

Garden loosestrife spreads by seeds and rhizomes.

How Do I Control It?

General Control Strategy

Control of this species is challenging because the species is a rhizomatous perennial, spreads by seed, and inhabits environmentally sensitive wetland sites.

Mechanical Control

Small populations may be covered with black plastic or a heavy tarp, make sure to secure edges and watch for plants trying to grow through holes or gaps. Other alternatives have not been studied. Since the species has extensive rhizomes, hand pulling or digging would be limited to very small infestations or new infestations.

Herbicide Control

Please refer to the PNW Weed Management Handbook, or contact your county noxious weed coordinator.

For More Information

See our postcard for early detection information about garden loosestrife.

See our Written Findings for more information about garden loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris).

Thurston County NWCB Fact Sheet on garden loosestrife

Stevens County NWCB Fact Sheet on garden loosestrife

Whatcom County NWCB Fact Sheet on garden loosestrife

King County NWCB Fact Sheet on garden loosestrife

Control Options for garden loosestrife from Whatcom County

Control Options for garden loosestrife from King County

getting rid of Houttuynia cordata

Although very attractive, Houttuynia cordata can be a real problem due to its aggressive nature. It is extremely difficult to eliminate.
If you have no other plants in the garden bed, you can try hitting it with glyphosate , a nonselective herbicide and then hand dig the plants that the chemical does not kill. Glyphosate is found in products such as Roundup and will kill all types of plant material, so you must be very careful to not apply it to the lawn or other desirable plants. It will probably take several applications to have any noticeable effect on the Houttuynia. When you have killed off some the plants then dig the remaining plants. This plant spreads by rhizomes. You must be sure to dig up all of these underground horizontal stems or they will sprout new growth. You will then need to monitor the area for new growth and spray or dig as it appears. It may take more than a year to rid the area of the Houttuynia . Do not replant the area until you are sure all of the Houttuynia is gone.
If the Houttuynia is mixed in a bed with other plants, it is very risky to use chemicals because you may kill the desirable plants. You have a few options. You can hand dig the Houttuynia. Again it will take some time to get all of the plants and their rhizomes. You could try painting the glyphosate on the Houttuynia with a small foam paint brush. By doing this you would be less likely to apply the chemical on the desired plants. Then hand dig any Houttuynia that is not killed by the chemical. A last option is to remove the desirable plants to another bed and use the chemical and mechanical method described in the above paragraph. If you decide to do the last option, be very careful not to take any of the Houttuynia rhizomes to the other bed. These rhizomes could very easily be mixed with the desirable plant roots.
Here are links to a couple of sites that discuss Houttuynia removal.
If you decide to use chemicals, be sure to read and follow all label directions.
I am sorry that I don’t have a more effective way to remove this aggressive plant. If you are persistent you will eventually be successful. If you have additional questions please reply back. Thank you for using our service.

How to Kill Chameleon Houttuynia

Native to Asia, the chameleon plant (Houttuynia cordata) grows rapidly in moist to wet soils that are fertile and warm. An attractive plant with heart-shaped leaves and white flowers, the chameleon plant is often planted as a ground cover or an accent plant in water gardens. Voracious growth via underground rhizomes and stems readily makes the chameleon plant invasive. Ridding a landscape of this herbaceous perennial is difficult, requiring a holistic approach over several months or years to rid the soil of all remnants of roots and rhizomes.

Reduce or halt all irrigation to the area infested with chameleon plant. Soil moisture encourages stronger root growth and more rapid spreading of the rhizomes. Drier soil in concert with hot, direct sunlight slows the growth rate, making it easier to control chameleon plants.

Put on gloves to reduce the risk of getting blisters or soil-stained hands.

Dig into the clump of weedy chameleon plants with a garden shovel. Lift up root-filled clumps of soil and overturn the soil to gently break apart the matrix of roots. Grasp the root clumps and shake them, depositing the soil back into the bed but retaining all stem and root fragments in your hands. Double dig the soil and rake through it with your gloved hands to remove any rhizome segments that may linger. Rhizome bits left in the soil will continue to grow and reinfest the area.

Discard all chameleon plant parts into a trash bucket or thick plastic garbage bag. Do not place dug-up plants or roots into the compost pile or in a separate debris pile in contact with soil elsewhere on your property.

Repeat the digging up of chameleon plants that may sprout up in the weeded area over the next several months. Pull up and discard all plant parts. Young sprouting chameleon plants may also be sprayed with a broadleaf herbicide, such as any containing the active ingredient glyphosate. Follow label directions for dosage rate and proper application procedures.

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