How to Make a “Spore” Account

Part of the fun of any game is customizing your information, and in “Spore” it will take a few steps so you can get your own personalized name and account. Starting an account with an Electronic Arts game can take a few extra steps since you have to sign up for their online service as well. While the process won’t be difficult, it will take a little bit of shuffling back and forth between your email and the EA website.

Create an EA Account. Go to the EA Games website at www.ea.com. Click the “Sign Up” link under the Origin banner on the top-right side of the page. Enter your email in the box that says “Enter your email address,” then hit the “Next” button.

Fill in the empty text boxes. Pick what Origin ID name and password you want to have. List your birthday and your country of residence. Enter the letters you see in the “Prove You’re Human” box and click the box beside the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service option. Select “Next.”

Check your email to see if the “Please verify your email address” message was received. Click on the link in the email to verify your email address.

Go back to your email and open the “Welcome to Origin” email. Open the link under “Accessing Your Account” to sign in using your email and password to finalize setting up your account.

Sign in to “Spore” and when prompted enter your EA/Origin information, which will be your email and password. Enter your desired “Spore” screen name and the rest of your personal information to finalize making your “Spore” account

Tips

You can also create an EA/Origin account directly through the “Spore” game, but you’ll have to leave the game to check your email.

If you have a pre-Origin-based EA account, you will not have to create a new one.

Warnings

Your Origin password has to have 8-16 characters, and have at least one lowercase letter, one uppercase letter and a number.

Can’t create a Spore account

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Spore: Galactic Adventures EULA 1. Title: SPORE™ CREATE your own missions with the all-new Adventure Creator, then share them online!. How can I make a Spore account? than you don’t need a code, if you bought it from steam, than you can find if when you press shift+tab and click cd-key, if you. So how do you do this you may ask? This guide will tell you how to link your EA account and connect to the Spore servers through Steam in 4.

If you have this problem after you buy it, and you probably have, go to http://www. sablidipsoma.tk, make an origin account. This will let you request help. So how do you do this you may ask? This guide will tell you how to link your EA account and connect to the Spore servers through Steam in 4. Part of the fun of any game is customizing your information, and in “Spore” it will take a few steps so you can get your own personalized name and account.

Solved: This is how you REALLY connect to spore servers through steam: here are the instructions, Then make spore account using your Origin login details. Solved: I have an EA account already, which I can log on to fine on the website, so I KNOW my login/password. I tried to register with the following. an account. I don’t have spore in my name and I know that I ahve HERE’S A FIX: sablidipsoma.tk

Spore. What is Spore · Get Spore · Players & Stories · Help | Login. Spore Creature Creator · ESRB Maxis EA. Popular Platforms Wii | PC Games | Web | Xbox. For Spore on the PC, a GameFAQs Answers question titled “Why can’t I register? Go to “sablidipsoma.tk” and log in with your EA account (even though it says If you can not open your Spore game and you are using Steam, this might be why : And, if you don’t want Maxis creatures, make sure you have the Maxis theme. Spore: Galactic Adventures EULA 1. Title: SPORE™ CREATE your own missions with the all-new Adventure Creator, then share them online!.

Fungal Clump

Fortune and glory, kid. Expert Mode-Only Content: This information applies only to Expert mode and Expert mode worlds.

Accessory – Crafting material

10 Summon

Summons a fungal clump to fight for you
The clump latches onto enemies and steals their life for you

Fungal Clump

The fungal clump will protect you

1 80

Fungal Clump

Statistics

Type Damage Tooltip Grants Buff Buff tooltip Rarity Sell
Dropped by
Entity Quantity Rate
Crabulon 1 100%

Summons Minion

Fungal Clump (minion)

Fungal Clump is an Pre-Hardmode, Expert Mode-exclusive accessory obtained from the Treasure Bag dropped by Crabulon. It summons a free Fungal Clump minion that attaches to enemies, damaging them and spawning blue healing orbs that home in on the player and heal the player for 25% of the damage the clump deals. The healing orbs travel farther if the player is holding a summon weapon. The Fungal Clump occupies no minion slots.

Contents

  • 1 Crafting
    • 1.1 Used in
  • 2 Notes
  • 3 Trivia

Crafting

Used in

Result Ingredients Crafting Station
Amalgamated Brain Draedon’s Forge
Void of Extinction
Fungal Clump
Leviathan Ambergris
Cosmilite Bar (5)
Phantoplasm (5)

Notes

  • The Fungal Clump has a base damage of 10, which can be boosted with the player’s damage-boosting equipment.
    • However, its damage is affected by the summon damage nerf mechanic. As a result, it will do very little damage and by extension be incapable of producing healing orbs on most enemies if the player is holding a non-summoner weapon.
  • Due to the healing orbs’ limited range, the player must stand in close proximity to the minion in order to benefit from its lifesteal.
  • It behaves similarly to the minions produced by Dank Staff and Blood Clot Staff; when used with Dank Creeper or Blood Clot minions, the Fungal Clump is likely to “stack” with the other minions and move identically to them.
  • The Fungal Clump cannot be equipped if the player is wearing The Amalgam accessory, and vice versa.

Trivia

  • When equipped, the Fungal Clump produces a large ring of light around the player, making it usable for filling in the player’s map by repeatedly equipping it and unequipping it.
    • This ring of light also triggers when the player produces a minion past what they are allowed to have.
  • In previous versions of the mod, Fungal Clump also caused Crabulon to become passive. With the accessory equipped, both the player and the boss became incapable of harming one another.

Aerospec armor • Statigel armor • Victide armor • Wulfrum armor

Astral armor • Ataxia armor • Daedalus armor • Mollusk armor • Reaver armor • Umbraphile armor

Auric Tesla armor • Bloodflare armor • Demonshade armor • God Slayer armor • Omega Blue armor • Silva armor • Tarragon armor • Xeroc armor

Abaddon • Abyssal Diving Gear • Shroomite Visage

v · d · e Equipable Items: Armor • Accessories ( Combat ) • Vanity
Armors Pre-Hardmode Hardmode Post-Moon Lord Miscellaneous
Accessories
Movement Air Angel Treads • Aureate Booster • Celestial Tracers • Discordian Wings • Drew’s Wings • Elysian Tracers • Elysian Wings • Hadarian Wings • MOAB • Seraph Tracers • Skyline Wings • Soul of Cryogen • Starlight Wings • Tarragon Wings • Xeroc Wings
Speed Aero Stone • Burden Breaker • Giant Shell • Harpy Ring • Vital Jelly
Aquatic Emblem • Iron Boots • Ocean Crest
Fishing Alluring Bait • Enchanted Pearl • Supreme Bait Tackle Box Fishing Station
Mining Ancient Fossil • Archaic Powder • Chaos Amulet
Abyss Abyssal Amulet • Abyssal Diving Gear • Abyssal Diving Suit • Anechoic Plating • Depths Charm • Lumenous Amulet
Other Determination Breaker • Level Meters • Lul • Music Box
Combat Accessories
Offensive Melee Badge of Bravery • Bloody Worm Scarf • Bloody Worm Tooth • Elemental Gauntlet • Fungal Symbiote • Samurai Badge • Yharim’s Insignia
Ranged Daedalus Emblem • Dynamo Stem Cells • Elemental Quiver
Magic Chaos Stone • Ethereal Talisman • Mana Overloader • Sigil of Calamitas
Summon The First Shadowflame • Spirit Glyph • Statis’ Blessing • Statis’ Curse • Statis’ Belt of Curses
Rogue Abyssal Mirror • Bloodstained Glove • Coin of Deceit • Dark God’s Sheath • Dragon Scales • Eclipse Mirror • Electrician’s Glove • Feather Crown • Filthy Glove • Glove of Precision • Glove of Recklessness • Ink Bomb • Mirage Mirror • Momentum Capacitor • Moonstone Crown • Nanotech • Raider’s Talisman • Rogue Emblem • Ruin Medallion • Silencing Sheath • Statis’ Belt of Curses • Statis’ Ninja Belt • Thief’s Dime • Vampiric Talisman
Rage Meter Draedon’s Heart • Heart of Darkness
Abyssal Amulet • Alchemical Flask • The Amalgam • Amalgamated Brain • Amidias’ Pendant • The Bee • Bloodflare Core • Bloom Stone • Counter Scarf • Dark Sun Ring • Dimensional Soul Artifact • Eldritch Soul Artifact • Frost Flare • Gehenna • Gladiator’s Locket • Leviathan Ambergris • Lumenous Amulet • Luxor’s Gift • Nebulous Core • Necklace of Vexation • Old Die • Plague Hive • Psychotic Amulet • Reaper Tooth Necklace • Rotten Brain • Toxic Heart • Unstable Prism • Void of Calamity • Void of Extinction • Yharim’s Gift
Defensive Minion Elemental in a Bottle • Eye of the Storm • Fungal Clump • Godly Soul Artifact • Heart of the Elements • Pearl of Enthrallment • Profaned Soul Artifact • Rare Elemental in a Bottle • Rose Stone
Abaddon • The Absorber • Affliction • Ambrosial Ampoule • Amidias’ Spark • Arcanum of the Void • Asgard’s Valor • Asgardian Aegis • Astral Arcanum • Astral Bulwark • The Community • Core of the Blood God • Corrupt Flask • Craw Carapace • Crimson Flask • Cryo Stone • Deep Diver • Deific Amulet • Elysian Aegis • The Evolution • Fabled Tortoise Shell • Flesh Totem • Frigid Bulwark • Frost Barrier • Fungal Carapace • Giant Pearl • Giant Tortoise Shell • Hide of Astrum Deus • Honey Dew • Laudanum • Lead Core • Living Dew • Ornate Shield • Permafrost’s Concoction • Rampart of Deities • Regenator • Sea Shell • Shield of the Ocean • Siren’s Heart • The Sponge • Stress Pills • The Transformer • Trinket of Chi • Ursa Sergeant
Restorative Health Blood Pact • Grand Gelatin • Life Jelly • Radiant Ooze
Mana Mana Jelly

Vanity

Single Pieces

Ace’s Apron of Affection • Boss Masks

Accessories

Magic Scarf and Hat

How to Make a Spore Print

Mushroom spores are very small and can only be seen individually with a microscope. On a mature mushroom, many thousands of spores grow on just one gill or on a small piece of a mushroom. In order to see a group of spores and also the color of the spores, we can make a spore print. Spore color can range from white to many other shades, including black.

Here are some ways to make spore prints:

Mushrooms with gills: The spores lie on the gill surface. Cut off the stem and place the cap, with the gills facing down, on a piece of aluminum foil, a white piece of paper, an index card or a glass microscope slide. Put a drop of water on the top of the cap to help release the spores. Cover the cap with a paper cup or glass and leave for 2-24 hours, depending on the humidity and the freshness of the mushroom. The spores will fall on the paper, foil or glass, making a spore print pattern. If you have only one specimen to study, just use a portion of the cap.

If you don’t want to separate the cap from the stem, make a hole in an index card, place the card on a paper cup and slide the stem of the mushroom through the hole until the underside of the cap is resting on the card; then proceed as above.

When collecting in the field or woods, you can take along some sheets of aluminum foil in your collecting basket, place the mushroom cap on the foil, and enclose it, together with the rest of the mushroom, in the foil. You might have a spore print when you return home or to your school.

Mushrooms with pores: If the mushroom has a stem and is soft and fresh, such as a bolete, the spores will be inside the pores underneath the cap. A spore print can be made in the same way as for a gilled mushroom. Your spore deposit will reflect the size and shape of the pores.

If the mushroom is hard, it is more difficult to obtain spore prints from polypores growing on trees or logs. Some polypores take a long time to mature and produce spores. Also, the mushrooms can often live a long time after they produce and disperse their spores. Try wrapping them in wet paper towels or newspapers overnight before putting them down on foil, paper or glass to make a spore print. Note that the spore bearing surface always faces down toward the ground as the polypore grows.

Mushrooms that have other forms: There are many other forms of mushrooms such as morels, hydnums, corals, puffballs and birds nests, to name just a few. If you find these different mushrooms, experiment or consult a mushroom book to locate the spores.

To study the spores with a microscope: Scrape off some of the spores from your spore print with a needle or scalpel, and place the spores on a microscope slide. Place a drop of water on the spores and cover with a cover slip.

To preserve your spore print: Spore prints can be preserved on paper or foil by spraying them lightly with an artist spray. Hair spray works well, too!

If you’re feeling artistic, why not let the spores “float” down onto the paper in patterns resulting from air currents in the room? Place the cap of the mushroom on card stock or colored paper without covering the cap, and see what happens! These surprises make appealing greeting cards, business cards or even beginnings of cartoons!

If you already know the color of the spores, pick a colored paper that will highlight the spore color. Many drop white spores, some are black, brown or cinnamon colored.

Ink caps (Coprinus comatus or other Coprinus species) will drop a surprising amount of black spores: leaving them overnight could provide you with enough to make ink: scrape them into several drops of water, and you could write a message about what you’ve just done.

As you read on the previous page, each mushroom genus will offer you sizes, patterns and colors to play with. Again, using artist “fixative” (or simply hair spray), you can “fix” the spores permanently.

Caution: Hold the spray at least 12 to 15 inches above the print or you may blast the spores right off the paper!

Sandy Sheine and Maggie Rogers

Entry for Second Grade Science Fair by Bridgette Couch.
Teacher: Ms. Cauchon
School: Brooklands Elementary School, Rochester Hills, MI

Photo by Elise Bauer

One day I walked into the kitchen at my friend Elise’s house. We were going to work on some recipes for her website, Simply Recipes, and Elise began telling me about her weekend. I listened intently, until, behind her, out in her back yard, I caught a glimpse of something: Mushrooms! Lots of mushrooms!

I found myself struggling to keep my attention with Elise. My eyes kept focusing on these beguiling mushrooms. I could almost feel them calling me: “Come hither, Hank, we’re yummy mushrooms… Eat us, eat us!” That’s what it sounded like in my warped little brain. OK, maybe not exactly like that, but close enough.

“I’m sorry, Elise. But I’ve just noticed those mushrooms behind you…”

Elise shrieked in delight. “They’re here!” Elise is as crazy about wild mushrooms as I am. She’d seen these mushrooms flush the previous year and her brother, also a mushroom hunter, had pronounced them fried chicken mushrooms, lyophyllum decastes. Edible. She let me pick as many as I wanted.

“Fried chicken mushrooms, eh? You sure?” Elise hemmed. She didn’t eat them last year because she was most definitely not sure. Both of us are wise enough to not take the eating of an unknown mushroom lightly. As the saying goes, there are bold mushroom hunters, and there are old mushroom hunters — there are no old, bold mushroom hunters.

Still, these shrooms were calling me. This happens from time to time, as, I think, it does to many mushroom hunters. I often feel when I am out looking for mushrooms that the Force guides me to the good ones.

But that does not mean I simply popped a few into my mouth and began chewing. I wanted to be damn sure about what variety of mushroom this was before I’d go eating it. So I began keying them out, thinking they were fried chicken mushrooms.

To “key out” a mushroom is to use a book like David Arora’s Mushrooms Demystified

, which contains long “keys” consisting of scores of “if-then” statements. For example, if the mushroom has a ring on the stalk, go to No. 12. If not, go to No. 18, and so on. You start with guidebook pictures to get you in the ballpark, then move on to the more detailed key to confirm your guess.

This is absolutely necessary when you are trying to see if a mushroom that is new to you will taste good, be boring — or will dissolve your liver.

Photo by Elise Bauer

Here’s how I keyed out these shrooms. First, they were beige-tan, growing in a clump on a rotted stump. They had a dark patch in the center of the cap. Fried chicken mushrooms have this trait.

Then I cut a bunch and set them in a sheet pan.

Photo by Elise Bauer

Huh. These mushrooms all had a ring on the stalk. Fried chicken mushrooms don’t. In most other respects, these mushrooms look like lyophyllum decastes, but this ring disqualifies them. That’s a problem. Now I needed to figure out what in fact they were.

A little more reading led me to the honey mushroom, armillaria mellea. Similar in a lot of respects to the fried chicken mushroom, and also edible. At this point I began feeling that mycological siren song that traps many a mushroom hunter: I wanted these to be honey mushrooms, so I could eat them.

It is a common — and potentially lethal — mistake to make a square peg fit into a round hole, mentally downplaying one aspect of a mushroom so it can fit into the edible hole you want it to be in. Dangerous.

So I took a closer look at these mushrooms.

Photo by Holly A. Heyser

What makes a honey mushroom a honey mushroom? Lots of things, but there are two important markers to look for beyond the three easy ones: where it’s growing, is it in a cluster and does it have the ring? The first important marker is whether the cap has five o’clock shadow:

Photo by Holly A. Heyser

These little hairs, or speckly fuzzy things on the cap are a hallmark of a honey mushroom — which, incidentally, is so named for the range of colors it can have on the cap rather than its flavor. Look for these markings.

A second tell-tale marker is the mushroom’s gills: They are decurrent, meaning they run down the bottom of the cap and onto the top of the stalk, down to the mushroom’s faint ring.

Photo by Holly A. Heyser

A final test is a spore print. It’s like a fingerprint for a mushroom, and will often confirm your best guesses after keying the thing out. To make a spore print, you slice off the stem of a mushroom and lay the cap, gills down, on paper. Ideally, you do a couple of prints: One on white paper, another on a darker paper. This is because a lot of mushrooms have white spores, which won’t show up on a piece of white paper.

Honey mushrooms have white spores. I was 95 percent certain I had honey mushrooms before the spore print, but still, I let a cap sit on a piece of yellow legal paper for several hours. I lifted the cap and booyah! A white print of the gills was on the yellow paper. Score.

Almost. You see, mushrooms are largely unknown in their interactions with the human body. Some, like the turkey tail, Trametes versicolor, have known medicinal properties. Others give you hallucinations. Many we perceive as just tasty. But some of those tasty ones affect different people differently.

For example, Elise cannot eat candy caps, Lactarius fragilis; she gets nauseous. Yet most people can eat bushels — once dried, candy caps smell and taste like maple syrup. So before I horked down a huge plate of these honey mushrooms (or gave them to Holly), I sauteed a couple and ate them. I reckoned that if I had no ill effects the next day, I’d make something with the rest of them.

I awoke the next morning to no gastric distress. Finally! After all this careful testing I knew I had several pounds of bona fide Armillaria mellea. What to do with them?

Apparently honey mushrooms are not well thought of in the mushroom world. Mediocre was the universal report. Slimy, remarked another. Then I read that the Russians, Poles and Ukrainians loved these things, and that there is a traditional pierogi made in Ukraine with honey mushrooms. There was my dish!

Cooked honey mushrooms have a special characteristic. Most sources say to cook them for at least 15 minutes, which seemed like no problem for a pierogi filling. So I dry sauteed them in a pan until they began releasing their water, then added butter, chopped onions and a little stock. Then a funny thing happened: Everything in the pan became thick and soupy.

Apparently, honey mushrooms act as a kind of mycological okra. The “slime” that comes out of them when cooking would indeed be nasty if you tried to eat them like shiitake mushrooms, which they look like, superficially. But this thickening effect is perfect when the mushrooms are part of a filling. Spasibo, Russians!

I served my mushroom pierogi simply, with onions sauteed in butter, sour cream and a little dill. They were chewy, hearty and filling, as you might expect with so much dough and butter. The honey mushrooms were not terribly distinctive, but tasted fine and, as part of a filling, were not slimy at all.

Photo by Holly A. Heyser

In case you are wondering, yes, all this work was worth the effort. Too many foragers shy away from mushrooms because they are scary. And those who do typically stick with the traditionals — morels, porcini, chanterelles. But scores of edible mushrooms live among us, and, if you are careful about identifying them, they can enrich your cooking in ways few other ingredients can. Many, like the honey mushroom, have special traits that you can take advantage of — if you know how to tap into them.

Who would have known that ground, dried honey mushrooms would act exactly like okra or filé powder? But now I do, and you do, too.

More Tips on Wild Mushrooms

You’ll find many more articles on identifying, processing and cooking wild mushrooms, as well as a host of recipes, here on Hunter Angler Gardener Cook!



Warning: this is NOT A BEGINNER’s mushroom.
This mushroom cannot be positively identified by observing features alone, a spore print must be done for positive identification. This mushroom has many lookalikes, some of which are deadly, others will make you very sick. Use the following tips as a guideline only, but confirm your identification with other reliable sources and a trusted local expert.
As always, it’s your responsibility to make sure you are 100% sure of any wild plant or mushroom you consume.
Finally, even when properly ID-d, ringless honeys are notorious for giving some people ACUTE GI problems. Always try a very small amount, like a single cap, for the fist time, then a small portion (3-4), before you consume a whole meal’s worth.
Identification difficulty level: Intermediate
Armillaria tabescens, commonly known as the ringless honey mushroom, is one of the most prolific edible wild mushrooms of early fall, at least some years. When they fruit, I find I can’t go anywhere without tripping over hundreds of patches, still other years I won’t see a single one.
Please read carefully all content below. Each step, including location and substrate, is essential to identification of this fungus. Wherever possible, I have tried to illustrate every single feature with a photograph, or two.
I chose to write this article because a blog post can show many, many more pictures than a book can, allowing me to really illustrate more features.

Where and when to find ringless honey mushrooms:

These fungi are Native to the east coast of the United States, from the Mid-Atlantic states south, and west to mid-Texas and Oklahoma. You can find them in parts of New England, like CT and MA, but I am not sure about Northern New England. Be very careful of your identification there.

All of these mushrooms probably come from the same mycelium, which sends up many fruiting over the course of a week.

Ringless honeys will fruit abundantly in an area, generally for a very short time: only about a week or two, in the North, the timeframe is shorter, in the South it’s longer. It seems like every single group of mycelium (the underground organism that actually grows the mushrooms) will send up clusters of mushrooms, every day or two, if there are sufficient rains.
This occurs in early fall, but what constitutes early fall varies by location. In New Jersey, I found them most often in mid-September. In Texas, I found them in very late October. Look for daily highs in the 80s, nighttime lows in the 60s, and gentle rains.

How to find them:

Ringless honey mushrooms grow exclusively on root wood. They are primarily saprobes, aka decomposers, but may also act as parasites and/or symbiotes with living trees. These fungi may appear nestled at the base of a living tree, on or between tree roots (either exposed roots, or ones just under the soil), or near dead stumps.

They should not be found growing on the raised trunk of a fallen tree. Regular (ringed) honey mushrooms may grow that way, but not the ringless ones. If you find the what you think is a ringless honey growing like this, it’s probably another mushroom.

On occasion, you may find ringless honeys growing in what appears to be an empty field. This can happen if there is a dead tree whose roots are still buried under the soil, however, until you are extremely familiar with this fungus, you should avoid such atypical growth, as it can increase the number of dangerous lookalikes.
Because of their frequent growth on decomposing stumps, I find I get my best hauls in well-maintained parks, in urban or suburban areas. Parks generally cut down larger trees, to help the overall growth of all the other trees, as large trees block out the sun and stifle smaller trees. The result is lots of stumps, and lots of ringless honeys.

Clustered growth from one base:

Ringless honey mushrooms are nearly 100% found growing in clusters of many mushrooms from one central mass of mycelium, which is found just below the ground. If you wiggle this cluster, you should be able to pull it up as one, and view this at the base of the fungus. If all your stems are not coming together at one point, you probably do not have a ringless honey, and should not eat it.

Note: removing this mycelial mass may hurt the organism that grows the mushrooms, or it may not. It’s essential for identification, until one is very familiar with the fungus, so it’s something you should definitely do. Once removed and confirmed, you can cut it free from the stems, and nestle it back down where it was. This may mitigate some of the effect of your removing it. If you feel strongly about not pulling the mass up, use a knife to cut through all the stems at the same height, low to the ground. Check that all the stems attach by carefully inspecting the stem bases that remain.
I personally have never noticed that pulling this mass up has any long-term effect on subsequent growth.

Caps:

Armillaria tabescens have tawny brown caps when very young, which lighten to fawn tan as they mature. The mushroom caps start out no larger than a pencil eraser, but should not be eaten at this size.

Left: young mushrooms, caps about the size of a dime. They are harder to ID at this size, and should not be eaten.Right: caps the size of a quarter. This is a good starting size for ID.

When fully mature, each cap may be as large as 4″ across, but they are frequently buggy if they get that large. I find that cap sizes 1.25″ wide to 2.25″ wide are generally at their best.
The cap texture is rather brittle, and the edges can chip easily in your hand.

All ringless honeys should have a small textured area, of darker coloration, in the middle of each cap. This can resemble scales, or brown tufts. If you don’t see this, at least small, you do not have a ringless honey.

Occasionally darker specimens may be found, where it’s harder to observe the key cap features. Avoid these abnormal fruitings until you are very familiar with the fungus, as they increase the list of potential lookalikes

Gills:

Armillaria tabescens have slightly decurrent gills. That is to say, the gills run down the stem a small amount. If the gills of your fungus are separate from the stem, you do not have ringless honeys.

Gills should be white or lightly beige.
Gills are “close. Each gill is separated from it’s neighbor by approximately the thickness of another gill.
Gills will generally fork, except in very very young mushrooms. Other gills will spring up in the forks between gills.

Stem features:

Stems should be white, fibrous, and almost woody; on mature mushrooms they will be grey at the base. When broken, they should appear jagged, fibrous, and almost look like a broken stick.
The stems have no ring, that’s a small “flap” of mushroom material that encircles the stem. They should also have no “ring zone”, no dark or light band around any of the stems showing where a ring was before it fell off. If you have a ring, you have another mushroom.
When cut as a group, the stems will reveal a lighter colored core. As the mushroom ages, this core may become hollow. But beware: that hollow core is a pathway for bugs. Always cut a few of your caps in half, to make sure they aren’t infested.

Spore print:

Assuming you have observed every other feature above, and found a 100% match, then there is just one more step to take.
A spore print is essential for positive identification of Armillaria tabescens. Ringless honey mushrooms should have pure white spore prints. No deadly mushroom which follows the above list of features will have white or light-colored spore prints, but read on for warnings about the jack o lantern.
Take 2 fresh caps from each cluster of mushrooms, to ensure accuracy. I suggest 2 caps, because one may already have released it’s spores.

With the black and red printing, the blocky text, and the surreal spore prints, it could almost be an album cover

If you are expecting a light spore print, you can use only dark paper, as I did here, but be on the lookout for seemingly “blank” areas, these can be brown spores — a sign of a deadly lookalike. Note: I rarely have dark paper on hand, so I save all dark-printed junk mail for exactly this purpose.
Don’t know how to do a spore print? Check out my post!

Sometimes the spores will already have released, effectively spore printing the ground under the cluster.

Preparation and edibility:

The caps on ringless honeys are generally all you want. The tough and fibrous stems aren’t very appetizing, especially as the mushroom gets older.
Even correctly identified, Armillaria tabescens is very difficult for some people to digest, leading to INTENSE gastrointestinal issues.
I am one of those people. For my first time, small number of caps, cooked in butter, and spent 6 straight hours with uncontrollable diarrhea. Un . . . con . . . troll . . . able. My husband, who ate significantly more (despite my warnings about small samples the first time) was completely fine.
It’s a shame too, as prepared with a light sauté in butter, this mushroom has an excellent, mushroomy, umami flavor and dense, meaty texture, almost like an organ meat: heart or tongue.
But to be on the safe side, one should boil ringless honeys for 10 solid minutes, in lightly salted water. This will remove a lot of whatever it is that distresses so many people. Ironically, despite my sensitivity, I can use this boiled water as a mushroom stock, and eat risotto and others made from it with impunity.

Sadly, after this rough treatment, the mushroom looses a bit of it’s flavor and some of it’s meaty texture, becoming a bit rubbery and crunchy at the edges.

Lookalike Species

I’ve tried to accumulate information on every conceivable lookalike for the ringless honey. Some of these aren’t poisonous. I have listed from most to least dangerous.

Deadly Galerina: deadly poisonous

I don’t have any pictures of Deadly Galerina, please check mushroomexpert.com
There are several Galerina species, and several of them have been renamed as new DNA sequencing has discovered several mushrooms which appear identical are actually genetically different. If you look in guides, you will see the following names: Galerina marginata, Galerina autumnalis, and, less frequently, Galerina venenata. The deadly Galerina sometimes goes by the common name “Autumn Galerina”, but I prefer the more to-the-point epithet.
The deadly Galerina, is, unsurprisingly, DEADLY.
Just one quarter of one cap can kill a grown adult. Death is extremely unpleasant, taking days or weeks, and usually occurs via kidney failure. THERE IS NO CURE for Galerina poisoning. With early detection, the best treatment can offer an 60-80% chance of survival, for adults. Many who survive will need dialysis for the rest of their lives.
Galerina marginata shares many features with Armillaria tabescens: they both grow on wood, they have lighter colored stems and tawny to brown caps, both have decurrent gills, both have close gills that fork, and finally Galerina frequently features clustered growth.
There are some differences which can be made with observation: Galerina produce a ring on the stem, however it is flimsy and often falls off, it frequently does not leave a ring zone. Galerina do not have the dark “tufts” in the center of the cap, but they do sometimes have a darker area there, with a different kind of scaly appearance. Galerina generally have sticky or shiny caps, but can appear duller if the weather has been dry. Galerina also generally grow on fallen wood, on the side of the tree, not at the base between or on wood, but again, that’s generally.
Until you are very familiar with ringless honeys, the only way to 100% be sure you do not have a Galerina : Galerinas have brown spore prints. Medium brown and slightly reddish.

Sulphur Tuft: poisonous

Unfortunately, this is another one I don’t have any images of. Please visit mushroomexpert.com for some pictures.
Sulphur tuft mushrooms, Hypholoma fasciculare, are a virtual dead ringer for ringless honeys. Though in theory they are bright yellow, or greenish yellow, brown and tawny specimens are not uncommon. They grow in clustered growth, have gills that attach to the stem (though they don’t run down it), have fibrous stems that break like wood, and have darker areas in the centers of their caps.
Unlike ringless honeys, the caps are generally free of those dark scales or “tufts”, and they could generally be described as “delicate” feeling in your hand, or dainty, with thin flesh, as opposed to robust but brittle, like the ringless honey. Still, this is the kind of observation that comes best in the field, rather than a book or webpage, which is why I recommend working with a local expert.
The best way to distinguish a sulfphur tuft from a ringless honey is to, sulphur tufts have a purply brown spore print, as opposed to white.

Jack O’Lantern: poisonous

This is the jack o’ lantern mushroom: Omphalotus illudens (North America). Similar, related and equally poisonous species are: Omphalotus olivascens (North American west coast), or Omphalotus olearius (Europe).
This bright orange mushroom is generally too vivid to be mistaken for a ringless honey, yet older specimens will be duller hue. Like the ringless honey, the jack has clustered growth on wood, decurrent gills, white or light stems, and no ring or ring zone. The jack is generally described as having a cream-colored spore print, but it may also be white.
Experience is the best way to distinguish ringless honeys from jacks. Jacks have orangish gills, but they may be pale orange, resembling beige. The gills on jacks are closer together than on ringless honeys. Most importantly, jacks lack that cluster of dark “tufts” in the center of each cap, that help define ringless honeys.
Jack O’Lanterns won’t kill you, but I’m told they make you wish they had. Acute gastrointestinal distress, including diarrhea (sometimes bloody) and vomiting. Symptoms can last 2-3 days, and may require hospitalization to deal with the dehydration.

Pholiota species: possibly poisonous

There are many species of Pholiota, more than I want to get into at this time. Pholiota were historically considered non-poisonous (but unappetizing), but new research indicates that many are in, in fact, poisonous to many people, especially in conjunction with certain foods and/or alcohol.
As you can see, some Pholiota resemble Armillaria very closely. They are similar in color (especially when fresh), some varieties have darker areas in the center, grow in clusters on wood and at the bases of trees, have nearly identical stems, and decurrent gills.
When young, they also have light-colored gills. Technically, all Pholiota have rings, or ring zones. But don’t believe this. On many varieties, the ring immediately falls off, leaving a ring zone that is impossible to recognize.
The only way to 100% prevent accidentally consuming a Pholiota . Pholiota have brown spore prints.
Please see Michael Kuo’s entry on Pholiota terrestris for excellent pictures of Pholiota that resemble ringless honeys.

Inky caps: possibly poisonous

Like with Pholiota, there are many varieties of inky caps, or Coprinoid (latin name) mushrooms. Some of them are edible, some will make you sick and some will only make you sick if you drink or have drunk alcohol either within the week before, or in the week following ingestion of the mushrooms.
Many Inky cap mushrooms have similar identification features to ringless honeys: growth in clusters, attached beneath the ground, growth from roots and at the bases of trees, and a darker center area, which may have small scales.
There are some observational differences: Corprinoid mushrooms are generally “fragile” rather than brittle, the whole thing can crumble with rough handling, they also have dainty, narrow stems, that don’t feel woody or fibrous.

But, the most guaranteed way to know you have an inky cap is to . I say attempt, because inky caps have a very very short shelf life, and usually dissolve into a mass of black, goo-y ink long before you can spore print them. If you try, you might want to use a plate under your paper, for easy clean-up.

Ringed honey mushrooms: edible

Not going to go into a ton of detail here, but Armillaria tabescens has a bunch of cousins, other Armillaria species, which share many of the same or similar characteristics, except the other Armillaria have rings around the stems.
In most books you will see all these ringed Armillaria grouped to gather as Armillaria mellea, yet new tests have determined that the true Armillaria mellea is limited to overlap roughly the same area as Armillaria tabescens, and other Armillaria are throughout the country, including Armillaria sinapina, Armillaria gallica, and a bunch of others that force me to undo autocorrect over and over and over. If that wasn’t confusing enough, there was a brief period when they reclassified the honey mushrooms of Armillaria (now the only Armillaria left) as Armillariella – so you may find that name in books as well.
None of this really matters from a strictly foraging standpoint. If you can positively identify a ringed Armillaria (and I might to a post on that, if this one goes well), then you may call it Armillaria mellea, no matter where you are in the country, and only hardcore mycologists will get annoyed with you. If you don’t want to annoy hardcore mycologists, you can safely say “Armillaria mellea complex”, or simply Armillaria sp. (sp. stands for species).
Many hardcore mycologists and groups of mushroom hunting/identifying purists don’t care much for foragers, or they begrudgingly put up with us, at best. As if picking something solely to write down in a notebook, what you found, is somehow more noble than picking something to go on top of a pizza.
There are many varieties of ringed Armillaria, some of which cannot be distinguished by observation alone, and may require microscopic and/or breeding tests to figure out what they are.
The ringed honey mushroom I am most familiar with, and since I lived most of my life on the East Coast, I assume it’s Armillaria mellea, is a bright yellow when very fresh, with a warm brown center. It fades to creamy yellow and toasty brown, after the rain or a few days in the sun.
What may matter to a forager is that, in my opinion, ringed honey mushrooms don’t taste as good as ringless honey mushrooms, and have a less appealing texture. Like their ringless cousins, Armillaria mellea and friends may cause gastric upset, and should be boiled to be safe. But ringed honeys loose a lot of flavor, and take on an almost exclusively crunchy texture, after boiling. They are best used in situations where they can absorb the flavors around them (in sauces, soups, etc) and/or when they can be food processed into a stuffing for dumplings, pierogi, gyoza and the like.

The velvet foot: edible

The velvet foot, caps (left) and velvety brown stem which gives the name (right)

Like Armillaria species, the velvet foot will have a light colored spore print. They also feature clustered growth on wood, tawny caps with somewhat darker centers (velvet foot tends to be much more vibrant, and reddish) and light colored gills. Unlike Armillaria tabescens, the gills do not run down the stalk (in fact, they don’t even attach), and the stem is dark brown, with a velvety texture. Hence, the name: velvet foot.
Grown commercially, this is the same mushroom we know as the Enoki! Enoki are grown in a abnormal conditions, leading to long, spindly stems, tiny caps, and pure white coloration. Having never sampled the wild specimen, I cannot tell you if they differ in taste.
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About a year ago I discovered an expired clutch of mushrooms that my mentor speculated as being “honey mushrooms”. I was delighted to learn about a new-to-me mushroom but was disappointed that I could not cook them to experience the taste. Finally, a year later, I just found a beautiful cluster and sought to confirm their I.D. to be sure of their edibility.

As I have mentioned in previous articles about mushrooms I advise that if you pursue this endeavor be sure to contact a local mushroom expert who can positively identify them for your own safety. I am grateful to have knowledgeable forayer friends with whom I share my finds and in turn they share theirs and that has helped me to positively identify edible mushrooms as they appear in each new season.

There are essentially two types of honey mushrooms: one variety (armillaria mellea) with rings on the stem and one without rings (armillaria tabescens). They may be found growing on or near hardwood trees, typically oaks. The ones that I found were in the grass near a dead curly maple tree. You can see the caps in the photo. They may be small and rounded, or flat and fully expanded. One important test to identify a honey mushroom is the spore print. When the cap of a mushroom is placed on a dark surface the spores from the gills are dropped and leave a beautiful pattern. The spore of the honey mushroom is white or light buff.

It is advised to fully cook these “honeys” for about 15 minutes because they can cause gastrointestinal discomfort for some. Another approach is to first par-boil them for 5 minutes before cooking them. Often with new-to-me mushrooms I will eat a very small portion at first and wait a day before consuming more as a precautionary measure because of not knowing how they may effect my system. I recommend this approach as a precautionary procedure when you try a new mushroom.

I’m happy to say that they did not adversely effect me and they were quite delicious… of course butter makes many things taste great! Here is a link for you to learn more about these interesting mushrooms – http://blog.crazyaboutmushrooms.com/ringless-honey-mushroom/ .

Fungal life cycles – spores and more

Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and include yeasts, moulds and mushrooms. Some fungi are multicellular, while others, such as yeasts, are unicellular. Most fungi are microscopic, but many produce the visible fruitbodies we call mushrooms. Fungi can reproduce asexually by budding, and many also have sexual reproduction and form fruitbodies that produce spores.

Unlike plants, fungi do not produce their own food – like animals, they have to source it. So how do fungi find food?

How do fungi move?

Imagine you were as tiny as fungal hyphae, with no legs or wings or other ways of moving. If you have food, water and O2, you can grow from the ends of the hyphae and maybe branch and grow off in different directions. But being so tiny, you will only move a small amount and likely not enough to find a new source of food.

Fungi must leave their food to find more, and they do this not as hyphae but as spores. Spores are tiny cells that form on special hyphae and are so small that more than 1,000 would easily fit on a pinhead. Being so small and lightweight, spores can easily move unseen in the air currents, and most fungal spores are spread by the wind. You are breathing them in (and out) without noticing it, and the spores don’t cause you any problems. Some spores are also spread by water droplets from rain or in streams, and others need help from animals such as flies. Flies like stinky things, so the stinkhorn fungi have developed their spores in a really bad smelling slime. The flies eat this and then carry the spores until they later deposit them in their poo.

If a spore lands where there is moisture and food, it may be able to grow (germinate) and produce its hyphae. As the hyphae branch and grow out in all directions from the spore, they form a circle of growth that is called a colony. Many fungi need two of these colonies to grow next to each other and to mate before that fungus is able to form any new spores and so spread further. Fungi need to produce so many spores because most spores simply die where they land, lacking water and food. Some fungal colonies can grow for a very long time and over a very large area.

Where do spores come from?

Many fungi form a fruitbody shaped as a mushroom, a shelf-like bracket, a puffball, a coral or simply like a splash of paint. The main purpose of the fruitbody is to produce spores so that the fungus can spread.

Spores of mushrooms form on special hyphae on the surface of thin gills that form in a circle hanging on the underside of the cap. The cap has a curved shape (poroharore) so that the rain droplets run off and the spores keep dry. Mushrooms must shed their spores fast as both mushrooms and spores often live for only a few days. If you pick a mushroom or other kind of fruitbody, the feeding stage of the fungus usually keeps growing in the soil or wood, but you will be stopping the mushroom’s spores from spreading to other places.

Can you see fungal spores?

If you use a microscope to make the spores look much larger, you can see them clearly. But without a microscope, it’s easy to see a large group of spores. Check out the to learn how to make a print from spores of a mushroom.

Activity idea

Using microscopes to identify fungi parts
Adapt our Ferns under the microscope activity so students can have a closer look at different fungi – and why not build in some additional learning about How microscopes magnify?

Acknowledgement

This resource has been adapted from Ngā Hekaheka o Aotearoa, a science/pūtaiao guide for teachers written by Dr Peter Buchanan, Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research; Dr Georgina Stewart, Te Kura Mātauranga School of Education, AUT University; and Hēni Jacob. These resources have been written from a Māori world view.

The Science Learning Hub would like to acknowledge Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research and the writers for their permission and help to adapt this publication for the web.

An electronic version of this teacher guidebook is available to download from Huia Publishers.

Key Concepts:

  • Fungal spores have a unique role in fungal life cycles as they provide the genetic link between one generation and another.

  • Spores can be part of asexual or sexual reproductive cycles, and are sometimes borne by multicellular sporocarps.

  • Spores in part owe their success to their thick walls, reserve energy source, low metabolic rate and ability to withstand environmental stress that enables them to survive during dispersal.

  • Some fungi coevolved with insects, establishing mutualistic symbiotic relationships, and depend upon them for spore dispersal.

  • Sporulation occurs within a narrow range of special nutritional and environmental conditions, and involves signal transduction, gene activation and metabolic turnover.

  • Sporulation and spore germination of some fungi are coordinated with light and temperature changes marking day and night cycles, the seasons or with life cycles of their hosts.

  • Conditions required for germination reflect the particular biological adaptations and requirements of the fungus, and ensure that further somatic growth will be successful.

  • Scientists should understand spore biology so that they may better control animal, plant and human diseases; to better utilise fungi for industrial purposes, or to utilise them more effectively in the laboratory.

Mushrooms are a type of fungus. There are many different kinds of fungi, including molds and crusts, as well as more developed types that have a stalk and a cap. Fungi are distinct from plants because they do not possess chlorophyll, the green pigment that allows plants to manufacture sugar from the sun’s energy; they need to absorb their food from the environment in which they live.

Fungi use fibers called hyphae (that as a group are referred to as mycelium), to take in food. The mycelium can remain dormant under the ground for many seasons, similar to the roots of plants. Each hypha that is sent out makes its way through earth/wood/plant matter until it reaches the surface.

During the organism’s specific growing season, the hyphae develop into mature structures capable of reproducing spores. The structure that you normally see above the ground is the part of the mushroom that is producing and dispersing spores.

Each spore is a single cell that is capable of sending out a hypha that will develop into a group and form its own mycelium. If the hypha of one spore meets up with the hypha of another, it begins the sexual process of spore prodcution through special spore-producing cells.

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