Gardening Blog

They were ridiculously early, for a start: we first looked at the house, and secretly scrumped a few deliciously sweet apples, in mid-August, weeks before you’d expect to be eating fresh apples. They were quite small, prettily rounded, and bright red: ‘Discovery’, I wondered? Maybe ‘Royal Gala’?

Well: the truth is, I hadn’t a clue. What I needed was an apple expert: someone like Joan Morgan, who’s been identifying apples for the National Fruit Collection at Brogdale (over 2000 varieties and counting) for the last 20 years.

‘It’s practice,’ she says. ‘It’s like identifying Persian carpets or paintings: there are a relatively small number of things to look for but it’s only with experience that you know what you’re looking at..’

Joan gets 500-plus samples through the post most years, all ‘mystery’ apples sent in to Brogdale for identification by ordinary gardeners like you and me. If she can’t identify them at first, she analyses the DNA of the leaves: if that doesn’t turn up a match, chances are it’s a very local apple that’s simply never been written down in the record books.

These super-rare apples are legendary: the Bardsey apple, for example, growing only on a single island off the coast of north-west Wales and down to one single tree; or the Doddin apple, which grows only in Redditch in Worcestershire. Several projects are now under way to describe these ancient varieties before they’re lost forever.

So here are Joan’s six tell-tale signs to help you work out which apple it is growing in your garden:

  1. season and usage: if the fruit is ripe to eat in August, it’s an early variety, so my little apple tree definitely wasn’t one of the late-fruiting types like Elstar or Braeburn. Cookers are usually larger and less highly-coloured; mine, small and red, was obviously a dessert apple.
  2. colouring of skin: each apple has a particular colouring and texture: uniform, blushed, streaked, spotted, smooth or russet. Mine was a fairly uniform red, paling to green in places
  3. the eye: the bit where the flower used to be sits in a ‘basin’ that can be open, or closed, and some have particular markings: Worcesters, for example, have shallow basins with beaded skin.
  4. the stalk: the other end is just as important: modern varieties like Golden Delicious are notable for their long, thin stalks, whereas older types have thicker, more stubby ones (like mine).
  5. taste test: many apples have a very distinct flavour. Cox, Discovery and Ashmeads Kernel have very characteristic taste. My mystery apple, too, had a sugary sweetness, a little like strawberries
  6. section test: cut the apple across its length, and across its width. Some are characteristically ‘blocky’ looked at in cross-section: a giveaway for Pink Lady or the Victorian pearmains.

And the verdict? My little apple turns out to be ‘Devonshire Quarrenden’, dating back to 1690 and really quite rare. I’m chuffed to bits. Now I’ve just got to figure out what that odd mid-green blocky one next to it might be…

‘Devonshire Quarrenden’

Joan Morgan will be at the Stanmer Park Apple Day in Brighton this Sunday, so bring your mystery apples for her to identify – she needs three good apples and a few leaves.

Sally Nex is a garden writer and blogger and part of the BBC Gardening team.

Read Sally Nex’s Gardening Blog posts.

There’s nothing quite like an apple that’s sweet, crisp, tart, and juicy. While apples are commonly eaten out of hand, many types of apples are great for cooking, too. Their culinary versatility shows in many ways: Apples work in all-American or French dishes, and in kid-friendly or sophisticated treats as well as drinks. One traditional pairing is apples with pork. The fruit’s sweetness complements the meat’s savoriness, resulting in classic dishes such as pork chops with apple sauce and sausage and apple stuffing.

While there are thousands of different types of apples in the world, we’ve rounded up 11 that represent the diversity found in today’s marketplace. Some, like the Red or the Golden Delicious, are tried-and-true favorites in the United States; others, such as Cameo and Fuji, are relative newcomers to the apple scene.

The fruit has been evolving for centuries: “Modern” apples have been cultivated for qualities such as shape, taste, and high production yield, but also for their resistance to pests and disease. In 1892, there were about 735 different varieties; now fewer than 50 are mass-grown. Because of renewed interest in older—and sometimes regional—varieties, “heirloom” apples such as Northern Spy, Gravenstein, Canadian Strawberry, and Newtown Pippin can be found at farmers’ markets or local orchards.

Read on to learn more about each of the most popular types of apples, followed by expert advice on how to buy and store apples for maximum freshness.

Types of Apples

1. Jonagold Apple

A lovely red hue with hints of yellow, this species is a hybrid of the Jonathan and the Golden Delicious and bears a faint physical resemblance to both. Like the Golden Delicious, Jonagold is sweet and thin-skinned, but it takes from the Jonathan a smooth skin and tart flavor. It is versatile and can be used in any recipe that calls for apples.

2. Cameo Apple

Although this apple was discovered in Washington State in 1987, it’s quickly grown in popularity. Juicy, crisp, and sweet with just a touch of tart, the Cameo is thought to come from both the Red and the Yellow Delicious. That explains its shape as well as the somewhat striated look of its red-and-yellow skin, which is thicker than the Golden Delicious but thinner than the Red. Try substituting Cameos for Goldens in baking and cooking recipes. This variety is especially delicious when eaten raw.

3. Empire Apple

A cross between McIntosh and Red Delicious, the Empire was developed by researchers at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in 1966. It is generally quite round, with a skin that’s bright red with hints of green. The interior is crisp and creamy white. The Empire is firmer than the McIntosh, so it makes for a good cooking apple.

4. McIntosh Apple

This apple is the least firm of all the ones rounded up here. The soft flesh can be described as “creamy” or “mealy,” which makes this variety a good candidate for eating raw or for applesauce or apple butter, but not necessarily for baking. If you bake with McIntoshes, use a thickener to keep the apples from becoming too mushy.

5. Golden Delicious Apple

This all-purpose apple may share part of its name with the Red Delicious, but the two are not related. These yellow apples are a bright and cheery. They’re soft apples, as well, although not as soft to the touch as a McIntosh or a Cortland. Thin-skinned, the Golden Delicious doesn’t store well (it can bruise and shrivel), so try to use it as soon as possible. This apple is ideal for pies, salads, sauces, and freezing.

6. Fuji Apple

Created by Japanese growers in the 1930s, the Fuji apple’s popularity grew in the U.S. during the 1980s and it has quickly become one of the most popular in the country. It’s a large crisp apple—a relative of the Red Delicious—with an intense sweetness that makes this an ideal candidate for eating raw. Try adding Fujis to salads and slaws that require very little to no cooking to keep their consistency.

7. Cortland Apple

It’s an understandable mistake to confuse this apple with the McIntosh. Both are on the squat side, with creamy white interiors and sweet-and-tart flavors. The Cortland is a relatively soft apple, although not quite as soft as the McIntosh. And unlike the McIntosh, the Cortland functions as an all-purpose apple, which means you can bake it, cook it, or eat it raw.

8. Red Delicious Apple

This is the most popular apple variety in the U.S. It’s top heavy and has a creamy white interior. While juicy, the Red Delicious is a soft apple and won’t cook well. It’s best to eat them raw. They’re ideal snacks for the lunchbox.

9. Gala Apple

Taller than it is wide, the gala’s shape is similar to that of the Golden and Red Delicious apples. It has a pleasantly mild, sweet taste, and crisp texture, and it’s one of the lighter-hued red apples, boasting bright-yellow undertones. It’s also one of the relatively small apples in this roundup. Like Fujis, Galas are easy to eat uncooked thanks to their thin skin and overall sweetness, making them an ideal fruit for kids. They’re also good for cooking.

10. Granny Smith Apple

This is one of our favorite types of green apples. You can’t miss this apple, originally from Australia, with its bright skin, hard feel, crisp bite, and extremely tart taste. When it’s really ripe, the green skin usually has a touch of rosy red. While some savor the tartness, others prefer to cook it, which sweetens it up. It is an ideal complement to savory foods such as onions and cheese. On an aesthetic note: The green skin provides a great visual element to any dish.

11. Braeburn Apple

Originating from New Zealand, this apple has a skin that’s muted red with golden-yellow undertones and tinges of faint green. It has a firm, crisp bite and offers a pleasing balance between sweet and tart. Firm to the touch, Braeburns are good for baking as well as eating just as they are.

How to Buy and Store Apples

Now that you’re familiar with the different types of apples, here are a few tips on how to buy, store, and prevent them from browning—plus, a list of our favorite apple recipes!

Choose Firm and Shiny Apples When Shopping

When buying apples, choose those without any bruises or soft, mushy spots. They should be firm for their specific variety (a McIntosh will not be as firm as a Granny Smith). Look for fruit with shiny skin—dull skin hints at a lack of crispness and flavor.

Keep Them Cool

Apples quickly lose their crispness at room temperature. To keep apples in the fridge, place them in a perforated plastic bag in the crisper. Do not store bruised or cut apples since that will make the other stored apples spoil. To keep apples for an extended period of time, wrap each one in newspaper (don’t use paper with colored ink) and then store in a dark, cool place like the cellar or the garage.

Use Lemon Juice to Keep Your Sliced Apples Fresh

If you’re slicing apples and don’t want the exposed pieces to turn brown, dunk the slices in a bowl of three parts water to one part lemon juice.

Try Growing Your Own Apples at Home

To grow your own apples, visit the local garden nursery or purchase the trees from online purveyors such as Trees of Antiquity, Fedco Trees, and Century Farm Orchards.

15 Apple Recipes to Try Tonight

Sweet Treats

  1. Caramel-Dipped Apples
  2. Apple Galette
  3. Old-Fashioned All-American Apple Pie
  4. Three-Apple Applesauce
  5. Apple-Molasses Upside-Down Cake

Savory Spins

  1. Apple and Parsnip Soup with Coriander
  2. Apple, Roquefort, and Red Leaf Lettuce with Pumpernickel Croutons
  3. New England Sausage, Apple and Dried Cranberry Stuffing
  4. Mashed Yams and Apples
  5. Pork Chops and Applesauce

Delightful Drinks

  1. Apple Martini
  2. Apple Soju Cocktails
  3. Mulled Apple Cider with Orange and Ginger
  4. The Gold Rush
  5. Wassail

1 / 41Chevron Chevron Coconut-Apple-Ginger Dal This velvety lentil stew is the antidote to holiday excess; skip the yogurt to make it vegan. Get This Recipe

Callery Pear Tree

A Graduation Ode to the Callery Pear Tree

by Katie Harmer

I will be graduating from Yale College in May.

In January of this term, I worried about how I would spend my last semester at Yale. I felt that I needed to accomplish much in all aspects of my life here during this last chance of a semester.

When we were given this tree and told that we would be spending the semester with it, some of my last-semester anxiety dissipated.

“If the Callery pear tree Number 33 can make it to spring, so can I,” I thought.

I was comforted knowing that in May, whether or not I spent my final months at Yale well, our Callery pear tree would bloom and I would graduate.

Grounded in the soil of Hillhouse Avenue, our Callery pear is ready.

Thank you, tree!

The 12 Months of the Year of a Callery Pear Tree

In the first month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

A Callery Pear Tree

In the second month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the third month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the fourth month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Four unopened buds

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the fifth month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Five white petals

Four unopened buds

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the sixth month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Six unpleasant odors

Five white petals

Four unopened buds

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the seventh month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Seven ovate leaves

Six unpleasant odors

Five white petals

Four unopened buds

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the eighth month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Eight immature fruits

Seven ovate leaves

Six unpleasant odors

Five white petals

Four unopened buds

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the ninth month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Nine happy picnickers

Eight immature fruits

Seven ovate leaves

Six unpleasant odors

Five white petals

Four unopened buds

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the tenth month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Ten brilliant colors

Nine happy picnickers

Eight immature fruits

Seven ovate leaves

Six unpleasant odors

Five white petals

Four unopened buds

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the eleventh month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Eleven feasting birds

Ten brilliant colors

Nine happy picnickers

Eight immature fruits

Seven ovate leaves

Six unpleasant odors

Five white petals

Four unopened buds

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

In the twelfth month of the year

Mother nature gave to me

Twelve snow-covered branches

Eleven feasting birds

Ten brilliant colors

Nine happy picnickers

Eight immature fruits

Seven ovate leaves

Six unpleasant odors

Five white petals

Four unopened buds

Three barren twigs

Two brown barky branches

And a Callery Pear Tree

Terminal bud set on shoots is a stage when the current year vegetative growth stops and a bud is formed at the end of the shoot. In an unusual weather conditions such as prolonged drought periods during spring and summer which we experienced across NY in 2016, additional flushes of growth can be triggered on shoots after terminal bud set has already occurred. These flushes are usually triggered by belated summer or fall rains which improve the water status of trees. In NY, in a year with normal weather patterns, terminal bud set occurs during July varying somewhat among different apple cultivars. In Michigan, for example, terminal shoot growth measurements on ‘Jonathan’ apple trees in 2013 showed that terminal bud set started just after June 24 and largely finished around July 1 (Fig. 1. gray line).

Figure 1. Shoot growth on ‘Jonathan’ apple trees in 2013 (Lansing, MI). Each point in this graph is a mean of 40 measured shoots on 4 replicate trees (10 shoots per each tree). The study evaluated whether the tested antibiotic (black line) had any effects on overall shoot growth in comparison to untreated control (gray line). The two graph lines were not statistically different (t-test, p < 0.05; Data by S. G. Acimovic, 2013 unpublished)

This indicated that in a typical year like 2013 was for Michigan, transition of growth stages from one to another went quite quickly and terminal bud set period was short. In other tree species rates and duration of shoot growth are different but also weather dependent (Fig. 2 /I-19/). With the usual weather patterns, typical for a certain part of the year, not only the apple growth stages transition quickly but the numerous shoots on each tree and across different trees of the same cultivar set terminal buds more-less uniformly. This is a significant consideration in relation to predicted fire blight infection periods. Once terminal bud set is completed, there is reduced danger of continuing fire blight infections that can spread further and kill large limbs or whole trees by progression via shoot infections into the trunk.

Figure 2. Scanned from book “Trees – Structure and Function” by M. H. Zimmermann and C. L. Brown (1974): Chapter 1, Section 8. Patterns of Primary Shoot Growth, pg. 45.

However, in a non-typical year like 2016, that had unpredictable weather patterns which started with abnormally warm weather in February, continued with cool conditions during bloom (end of April – early May), and ended up with several month-long drought periods (June, August, September), a lot of processes in the tree growth are off-set. First of all, some growth stages on apples in 2016, such as bloom, lasted longer than usual due to cool weather. Second, shoot growth was first slowed by initially cool weather and then started progressing very quickly due to unusually high temperatures at the end of May and beginning of June. In 2016, bloom and shoot growth stages overlapped longer and lasted longer than usual. Hence, individual shoots did not set terminal buds at roughly the similar and as short time period as usual. This prolonged shoot growth and off-set terminal bud set allowed extended time for fire blight pathogen to rapidly spread to shoots from late-infected flowers. It also allowed the pathogen to continue spreading to other uninfected shoots throughout the summer. Hence, longer lasting of bloom and shoot growth, as the most susceptible growth stages for fire blight, means that there was a much longer time for pathogen to spread and infect further. This increased the overall damage caused by fire blight in Champlain Valley growing region of NY in 2016.

Before shoots set terminal buds, they are extremely susceptible to fire blight infections because their tissues are soft and prone to mechanical injury. Young shoots are easily punctured, bruised, or damaged on a microscopic level by wind-borne soil particles, plant debris, insects, friction from branches, leaves, and fruit, and visibly by hail and gusty rain storms. Along with numerous and very active stomata as natural plant openings, these wounds on young shoots are major points of entry for fire blight bacteria leading to infections. As shoot growth slows and the terminal bud set starts, the cell walls thicken, stomata on the shoot stem cease their activity, and the base of the shoot starts hardening off with thick cuticle and bark formation. All these processes are a part of shoot maturation leading to development of ontogenic i.e. age related resistance to fire blight. After the shoot growth stops, only severe damage by hail and wind driven debris can wound or break shoots and branches allowing new entry points for fire blight infection. Important considerations about fire blight management in relation to terminal bud set are available on my previous blog post: Fire Blight in Champlain Valley 2016 (II) – Management Options in 2016 & 2017 published on September 12, 2016.

An approximate age for many young conifers can be determined by counting the whorls. Some trees, including most conifers growing in the Pacific Northwest, have determinate height growth. This means that they put on one “flush of growth” each year, and each year’s growth is determined by the previous year’s bud. The terminal and lateral buds at the tips of the tree break bud, or “flush” in the spring (Figure 4.2). The stems or “leaders” produced by these buds elongate until sometime in July, and then set new buds for the following spring.

Figure 4.2. Terminal buds at the tip of the stem (left) flush and grow new branches and leaves each year (right). The center becomes the new leader, or main stem. The lateral or side buds become new lateral branches.

A tree increases in height by the length of the new leader growth produced by the terminal bud. In addition, the lateral buds flush and produce a new whorl of branches at the base of the leader (old bud location) (Figure 4.3). This process is repeated every year. Therefore, each whorl of branches and the stem growth immediately above it (up to the next whorl) represent one year of growth.

Figure 4.3. An annual flush of growth represents one year, or one whorl of growth.

Tip Bearing Apple Trees and How to Prune Them. 

True Tip Bearing Apple Trees.

The flowers and fruit on true tip-bearing apples, are borne on the tips of long slender shoots that were produced the year before. These are known as two year growths. It is easy to distinguish the fruit buds from normal leaf buds, for they will be considerably plumper – and rounded in a cluster. Incidentally, Tip Bearing Apple trees are great for growing as ‘bent-down’ types. They usually have drooping branches anyway.

How to Prune A Tip Bearing Apple Tree.

There are basically two different ways to grow a tip bearing apple tree. They can either be grown with a central leader, which then has lateral branches up the length of the leader, or they can be grown in an ‘open tulip’ shape. the latter does not have a central leader, and is normally shorter, with the growth emanating outwards or even downwards with the weight of the fruit!

Firstly – as with all pruning – think of 3Ds! Dead, Diseased, and Damaged. Get rid of them all! Add a further ‘D’ for ‘Distance’. For, you need to prune in such a way, that you prevent any crossing or rubbing branches that will eventually lead to damaged and diseased wood.

Central Leader Types

Even though you want your tree to grow as a central leader type, you should still prune back the central leader each year. Simply cut back the new growth each year – in late winter – to a good strong bud some third of the way back. If it is a strong growing leader, then no need to cut back too hard – or you will push it into producing lush vegetative growth. If it is a weak growing central leader, then cut it back by up to 2/3rds its new wood length.

General Pruning for ALL tip bearers.

In the winter, the lateral branches will have side shoots that were produced in the growing season just finished. If these side shoots are less than say 9in long, then they can be left unpruned, for they will bear the flowers and fruit at the ends next year/growing season. Longer side shoots should be pruned back to around 5-6in. This will then promote new side shoots the following year, and these will flower and fruit the year after. (So pruning cuts in Feb 05, will produce side shoots in summer 05, which will then produce flowers and fruit in the season 06 – ie on two year old wood!)

Summer Pruning

Whether open or central leader growing it is up to you. But, both types will be better for a little summer pruning. This pruning is simply to trim back any of the vegetative growths that are not wanted for fruiting the following year. Open up the tree and allow the air and sunlight into the fruiting areas. You will get better fruit for doing so. Mainly because you will be sending the energy into the fruit, instead of it being wasted on growth that you are going to prune out the following winter!

There are not too many tip bearing apples being sold, for the nurseries do not want complaints of lack of fruit – after the tips have been cut off!!

A Few Partial Tip Bearing Apples

  • Blenheim Orange

  • Bramley’s Seedling

  • Lord Lambourne

  • Tydeman’s Early Worcester

  • Pink Lady

  • Worcester Pearmin

  • Granny Smith

You are welcome to add to this list, or add some comments/problems by mailing us here

Pruning and Training Apple Trees

Pruning and training apple trees, basic principles and new strategies to improve fruit quality in modern plantings .

Why prune and train? An apple orchard is a solar collector, fruit trees convert sunlight energy to chemical energy then utilize this energy to manufacture a nutritious food. Apples.

Before beginning work on the tree architecture and in an orchard block, it is important to review why we prune and train for trees. There are two main considerations, the total amount of light intercepted, influences crop yield. And the distribution of light throughout the canopy determines the location of fruit and its quality.

The primary goal of pruning and training fruit trees is to improve sunlight distribution.

Apple leaves almost harvest at least 30 percent of the sunlight available on a sunny day to operate at full capacity and for fruit to obtain maximum size, color, and sugar levels. Where as with a grain crop, 100% sunlight interception is optimal. With apple trees, fruit quality must be balanced with total crop yield.

Optimal sunlight interceptions closer to 70 percent. In this way leaves throughout the canopy operate with adequate light. Light can move about four feet into a tree canopy before it becomes limiting. Strategic pruning and training create windows into tree canopies to let sunlight in. This is an important step to grow big sweet apples with attractive skin color. Other goals to consider are tree size control and increased yeild efficiency. Crop load reduction, fruit spur renewal, improved air movement and disease control, limb selection in positioning, shaping canopy to desired form. First, controlling tree size and increasing yield efficiency. Pruning is a dwarfing process and can be used to maintain a tree in its allotted space in an orchard row, optimizing pounds of fruit per pounds wood equates to optimum yield efficiency.

Second, crop load reduction. Since an apple tree will usually set more fruit than it can support, partial crop thinning can be accomplished by removal of fruit bearing surfaces.

Third, fruit spur renewal. Fruit size and quality decline on old spurs purning stimulates new wood with young spurs.

Next, improved air movement which promotes better drying conditions and spray penetration. These help to reduce damage caused by insects and disease. An open tree canopy is important component of a successful integrated crop management program.

Fifth, when selection in positioning remove the damaged in diseased branches.

Also limbs that are more than a half the diameter of the truck at the point of attachment. These branches tend to shade lower portions of the canopy, limbs with wide crouch angles have the best balance between shoot growth and fruit production.

Any final goal of pruning and training apple trees is to shape the canopy to the desired tree form. In apple orchards trees are trained to a conical or pyramid shape and most training systems.

How we make the windows into a fruit tree is important. It’s essential to understand when to use various pruning and training strategies.

There are two types of pruning cuts, heading and thining. A fruit tree will respond very differently to the different cuts. With a heading cut the terminal portion of a branch, limb or shoot is removed.

The main effects of the cut are, an increased number of shoots, increased length of shoots, more upright growth, reduced numbers of fruit spurs, and a denser canopy with reduced light levels. Heading cuts should be reserved for training young trees and for limb renewal on mature trees. If there is a portion of a tree canopy where increased branching is desired use a heading cut. To make a heading cut, position pruner blades at an angle about a quarter inch above a bud position to grow in a desired direction. Pruning tools should be kept sharp so that the cuts can be made quickly and smoothly.

One type of heading cut that should not be used on apple trees is a bench cut.

It is preferable to use training aids to adjust lim angles. With the thinning cut an entire branch, limb, or shoot is removed. Growth is stimulated at the site of the cut but to a much lesser extent than with the heading cut. The main response is fewer shoots which resulted in more open canopy and improved light distribution. Thinning cuts are utilized in both young and mature trees to maximize light interception, crop production, and fruit quality.

To properly thin out a shoot make a pruning cut at its base just outside the collar.

Notice the swollen area. Keeping the color intact will result in an improved healing response. To encourage the development of a new branch at the site of the cut a bevel or dutch cut is used. This is an angled cut that preserves the latent bud on an underside of the shoot that will likely grow into a renewal one.

Various training strategies can be used to open windows and fruit tree canopies.

The principal to keep in mind is that a very upright shoot will tend to be overly vigorous and will not bear much fruit creating poor light conditions. At the other extreme, a shoot or branch in a flat orientation will produce an excessive number of fruit and shoot growth will be minimal. The ideal branch angle various with apple variety and training system but is generally between 50 to 75 degrees from vertical for permanent scaffolds. A scaffold limb spread to a wide angle will have better balance between vegetative growth and fruit production.

Temporary branches in upper tiers of an apple tree or train to horizontal positions to induce fruiting. A second or third tier branch that is overly vigorous should be bent to below horizontal. Popular training systems in newer orchard blocks for the vertical axis and the state central leader, both used with size restricting rootstock. In older blocks common systems are the freestanding central leader and the multiple leader upside-down pyramid system.

Pyramid or cone shaped trees either the vertical axis or the central leader system intercept adequate sunlight while allowing good light distribution to the lower canopy. An orchard of pyramid shaped trees is arranged just like an efficient solar panel system, the top of each panel allows light to reach the base of each panel.

Large freestanding central leader train trees and especially multiple leader train trees have poor light conditions it is crucial to create windows of light by thinning out each scaffold in relation to itself and to the others around it.

Developing a pyramid-shaped canopy requires patience, at some point as the tree reaches five to seven years of age, the leader will grow taller than planned final height of the mature canopy.

It then becomes a temptation to attempt to contain tree height by shortening the leader, do not give in to the temptation, wait until leader has become fruitful and its growth has slowed before heading it. Often this will not occur until the 7th leaf. Then shorten the leader by cutting back to a fruitful side branch.

The leader must be allowed to grow taller than the final tree height for a year or two. Cutting too soon will lead to delayed fruiting and more vigorous re-growth, some refer to this management technique as crop and flop.

Pruning becomes more intensive with multiple leader trees. The greatest challenge in this canopy shape is to prevent the upper branches with good light exposure from outgrowing and shading lower limbs. Productivity and fruit color in the lower canopy declined when this shading occurs. The most vigorous limbs in the top must be pruned out to maintain adequate light penetration in the bottom of the canopy. Thinning cuts are preferable to heading or stubbing back cuts. Sometimes multi leader trees are created unintentionally by leaving too many permanent branches in the top of the canopy and letting these become too dominant. This condition can be corrected by removing two to three major limbs per year from the upper canopy over a three-year period. Dust converting the canopy back into a conical form, yields are reduced during this period of conversion so this technique is usually reserved for younger semi dwarf trees. Pruning and training techniques vary with varieties of different growth habits. Spurr type trees such as new delicious strains, tend to have fewer more upright scaffled limbs and more friuting spurs compared to non spur varieties. The limbs had minimal branching. In spur type apple blocks, a greater number of permanent scaffleds can be selected and strategic heading cuts are warranted when more shoot growth is needed.

Various training aids can be used to bend the limbs to more desirable orientation.

Terminal bearing trees such as Rome and Granny Smith tend to have weaving growth habits.

Hanging limbs are removed with thinning cuts or stubbing cuts. The spurs are short shoots and for good productivity should not be thinned too heavily, don’t worry if terminal bearing trees do not look as pretty as trees of other growth types when you’re done pruning. Young terminal bears and spur types both tend to a blind wood.

Delaying pruning until late spring will encourage more branching on blind shoots.

Bearing apple trees may be pruned once they have stopped growing for the season and after exposure to freezing temperatures. pruning in late spring and induces more bud break, pruning after bloom called the delayed dormant pruning is deenergizing and is a useful practice on trees that are overly vigorous.

Avoid pruning before a cold event, as pruning reduces the trees hardiness for about 10 days. The greatest loss of hardiness is within 48 hours of pruning, when the forecast indicates a potential drop to about negative twenty degrees Fahrenheit or drop of more than 50 degrees and inter negative numbers, stop pruning until the severe weather is past. Pruning is a cumulative process apple trees really have perfect forms and you do not want to remove every branch that is less than ideal. Prune only as much as needed consider, tree vigor, cropping, and natural growth habit. On large trees you can make about three big cuts and remove up to about a third of the smaller limbs.

It takes about three years to do corrective pruning on neglected trees. On narrow canopy trees such as the vertical axis you can make about one large cut per season, this should be a bevel or Dutch cut as described earlier for the purpose of lim renewal.

Although pruning is a dwarfing process, it isn’t a substitute for natural size control and should be used as an aid not as a means of dwarfing.

Avoid severe pruning bend a limb rather than cut it out when possible.

Trees that are prune to heavily will have reduced cropping, excess wood production and will be less efficient. On trees that seem to need heavy pruning save some cuts for next year rather than sacrifice fruit yield.

Modern orchard planning should be pruned carefully to maximize cropping and fruit quality. Fortunately if you remember some basic pruning and training principles and techniques you’ll make a huge difference in the success of an orchard operation. The main goal is to create windows to increase light distribution.

Use thinning cuts in most situations.

Reserve heading cuts for portions of the canopy were increased branching is desired.

Use a bevel or dutch cut for scaffold renewal where a limb has become overly vigorous. Ideal angles for permanent scaffold limbs are 50 to 75 degrees from vertical.

Pyramid shaped trees intercept the most sunlight maintain a tree structure that is wide at the base and narrow at the top. With the heaviest diameter branches in the first whirl and the branch diameter gradually decreasing in upper tiers. Avoid pruning before a cold event.

Avoid severe pruning.

Pruning is a cumulative process. Prune only as much as needed.

bending some limbs rather than removing them, save some cuts for next year. You will take tremendous pride in apple blocks you have handled in this manner.

As your impact on the orchard enterprise will be obvious. Apple trees will have better light quality, which will lead to higher productivity and better fruit quality.

Spur Bearing Apple Info: Pruning Spur Bearing Apple Trees In The Landscape

With so many varieties available, shopping for apple trees can be confusing. Add terms like spur bearing, tip bearing and partial tip bearing and it can be even more confusing. These three terms simply describe where the fruit grows on the tree’s branches. Most commonly sold apple trees are spur bearing. So what is a spur bearing apple tree? Continue reading to learn more.

Spur Bearing Apple Info

On spur bearing apple trees, fruit grows on small thorn-like shoots (called spurs), which grow evenly along the main branches. Most spur bearing apples bear fruit the second or third year. The buds develop in mid-summer to late fall, then the next year it flowers and bears fruit.

Most spur bearing apple trees are dense and compact. They are easy to grow as espaliers because of their compact habit and abundance of fruit throughout the plant.

Some common spur bearing apple tree varieties are:

  • Candy Crisp
  • Red Delicious
  • Golden Delicious
  • Winesap
  • Macintosh
  • Baldwin
  • Chieftain
  • Fuji
  • Jonathan
  • Honeycrisp
  • Jonagold
  • Zestar

Pruning Spur Bearing Apple Trees

So you may be thinking what does it matter where the fruit grows on the tree as long as you get fruit. Pruning spur bearing apples is different than pruning tip or partial tip bearing varieties, though.

Spur bearing apple trees can be pruned harder and more often because they bear more fruit throughout the plant. Spur bearing apple trees should be pruned in winter. Remove dead, diseased and damaged branches. You can also prune branches to shape. Do not prune off all the fruit buds, which will be easy to identify.

Apple varieties

Apple varieties

  1. 1. COMMERCIAL VARIETIES OF APPLE Sameer Muhamed 2014-12-109 1
  2. 2. APPLE CULTIVARS  Green English varieties-McIntosh, Jonathan, Golden Delicious, Baldwin, Cox’s Orange Pippin  2
  3. 3.  Coloured Delicious apples replaced the English ones- (75% of the total area in HP, 45% in J&K) RED DELICIOUS ROYAL DELICIOUS 3
  4. 4.  Spur type cultivars: Starkrimson,Well Spur, Redspur, Red Chief, Silver Spur  Standard colour mutants: Vance Delicious,Top Red, Skyline Supreme, Hardiman, Bright-n-Early 4
  5. 5. COMMERCIAL CULTIVARS 5
  6. 6. DELICIOUS  Chance seedling  Most widely grown and studied cultivar  Fruit – conical, protuberance near calyx  Flesh – firm, sweet & juicy  Alternate bearing  Maximum storage life – 180 days  Susceptible to apple scab  Resistant to powdery mildew 6
  7. 7. Red Delicious  Most popular variety of India  Fruit:Long,conical with protuberance near the calyx,skin yellow with red stripes not all over the surface  Flesh:Firm,sweet and juicy  Does not develop superior red colour until fully mature but by that time apple losses its crispness 7
  8. 8. Royal Delicious  Syn. Starking Delicious  A bud sport branch developed on a Delicious tree  Early colouring than Red Delicious  Fruits:Large,conical,yellow skin covered with red stripes all over the surface 8
  9. 9. Rich-a-Red  Bud sport of Red Delicious  Fruit: Large,conical,skin with red blush  Colours earlier than Delicious but later than Starking.  More completely coloured than Delicious  Flesh – sweet, very juicy & of excellent flavour 9
  10. 10. Red Gold  Fruits round to slightly oblong,skin highly red blushed,waxy and glossy.  Flesh white with pinkish tint near the surface  Regular and heavy bearing variety  Used as pollinizer for Red Delicious and Starking Delicious 10
  11. 11. Golden Delicious 11  Commercial variety of USA and Europe  Used as pollinizer for Delicious  Fruit: Round,conical to oblongn and golden yellow colour  Cream, fine textured, crisp and juicy flesh with conspicuous pleasant flavour  Suitable for processing
  12. 12. McIntosh 12  Leading variety of Canada  Medium season variety  Fruit: Small to medium,round,yellowish green with red blush  Greenish,juicy and fairly sweet pulp  Grown in Kulu and Kashmir
  13. 13. Baldwin  Large sized fruits with reddish colour and roundto conical in shape  Sour in taste  Very good keeping quality 13
  14. 14. Fuji  Evolved in Japan  Ralls Janet x Delicious  Tree – large vigorous spreading  Most promising late variety  Colour resembles delicious  Flesh- not attractive, very firm slightly coarse,very juicy, aromatic and sub acid  Excellent for dessert
  15. 15. Early Colouring Strains of Delicious 15 Standard Types Vance Delicious  Bud mutant of Delicious  Fruit: Conical,solid red skin  Colours two weeks earlier to Red Delicious Top Red  Bud sport of Delicious  Fruit:Long with red streaks  Matures three weeks before Starking Delicious
  16. 16. 16 Skyline Supreme Delicious  Bud mutant of Starking Delicious  Fruit shape and colour are similar to Delicious Hardeyman  Similar to Starking Delicious  Tree is vigorous in growth
  17. 17. New Spur Types 17 Starkrimson Delicious  Dwarf trees  Fruit:Oblong,medium sized,deep red in colour,hard in texture, sweet and juicy  Suitable for mid-hills
  18. 18. 18 Oregan Spur  Bud sport of Delicious  Fruits are similar to Delicious in size and shape  Pulp is light yellow,crunchy and sweet but a bit hard Red Chief  Bud sport of Delicious  Fruits are similar to Delicious Gold Spur Delicious  Bud mutant of Golden Delicious  Pollinizer for all spur types
  19. 19. 19 Stark Spur Golden Delicious  Bears fruits similar to Golden Spur in shape,colour and appearance Red Spur Delicious  Resembles to well coloured Rich-a-Red  Tree with close internodal growth  Grows to two-third size of standard trees
  20. 20. New Pollinizers 20 Tydeman’s Early Worcestor  One of the earliest variety which matures in mid-July  Popular in mid-hills  Used as pollinizer for Delicious varieties Lord Lambourne  James Greeves x Worcestor Peerman  Regular bearer
  21. 21. 21 Granny Smith  Mostly grown in Argentina,Australia and New Zealand  Fruit takes 6-7 months to mature  Fruits: Medium sized,round,skin grass green with whitish dots,subacid and not rich flavoured  Suitable for processing  Pollinizer for commercial varieties in India
  22. 22. Winter Banana 22
  23. 23. INDIAN VARIETIES OF APPLE 23
  24. 24. Ambri 24  Only indigenous variety grown commercially in India  Originated in Kashmir as chance seedling  Fruit – medium to large, oblong in shape  Red streaks over a greenish yellow back ground  Pulp – white, crisp & sweet  Late season apple (ripening – Sept-Oct)  Good keeping quality ( 4-5 months in ordinary condition and10 months in cold storage)
  25. 25. 25  Lal Ambri (Red Delicious x Ambri)  Sunehari (Ambri x Golden Delicious)  Chaubattia Princess (Early Shanburry x Red Delicious)  Chaubattia Anupam (Early Shanburry x Red Delicious)  Ambred (Red Delicious x Ambri)  Ambrich (Rich-a-Red x Ambri)  Ambroyal (Starking Delicious x Ambri)
  26. 26. 26 Ambroyal Ambred Chaubattia
  27. 27. Prima Sir Prize Nova Easy Grow Priscilla Priam Mac Free Scab-resistant Varieties
  28. 28. 28 Freedom Liberty Jonafree
  29. 29. Low-chilling Varieties 29  Chilling period: less than 800hrs below 7⁰ C  Poor in dessert quality and shelf-life Michal Schlomit Anna Neomi Tropical Beauty Parlin’s Beauty
  30. 30. Recommended Varieties of Apple in Different States 30 Season Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Uttaranchal Early Season Tydeman’s Early* Michael,Molies Delicious,Schlomit Irish Peach,Benoni Starkrimson Early Shanburry* Fenny Benoni Chaubattia Mid Season Royal Delicious,Red Delicious,Richare d Vance Delicious Top Red,Oregon Spur American Mother Jonathan Cox’s Orange Pippin*,Red Gold* Red Delicious Starking Delicious McIntosh*,Golden Delicious* Late Season Golden Delicious*,Yellow Newton*,Winter Banana,Granny Smith* Ambri,Baldwin, Golden Delicious* Red Delicious Sunhari Rymer Buckingham * Pollinizer
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 33

SCARLET SPUR (II)

SCARLET SPUR (II)

(हिन्दी में)

SCARLET SPUR (II)

ORIGIN
Scarlet Spur is the new and improved variety of red delicious. Scarlet spur is a “sport” of Oregon spur and was invented in 1980 by William G. Evans and Don R. Snipes in Yakima city of Washington. Scarlet spur two is mutation of scarlet spur and have all the characteristics of its parent and gets fully colored before 3 days from the parent. Scarlet spur and Scarlet spur two is a Van Well Nursery exclusive premier variety.

SCARLET SPUR (II) WALNUT STAGE

KEY POINTS
• Mutation of Oregon spur
• Mid-early Bloom
• Fruit size 70-85mm
• Spur type tree
• Growth is moderate to weak
• Pollinated by Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Gala
• Full intense blushed color at harvest
• Fruit flesh is crispy and juicy
• Good storage quality

TREE DESCRIPTION
It is a medium sized tree, slow growing with spur type characteristics. It is believed that it is not suitable for higher elevations of Himachal Hills. However, it performs well in altitude range of 4500-6500 feet above mean sea-level. The tree is very productive and is the most promising commercial cultivar of the state. Top working old plants with scarlet spur has been found very productive. The growth of scarlet spur is moderate to weak, so a strong root stock is recommended. Scarlet spur gets pollinated by Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Gala. Sometimes heavy cropping has been reported, so the excess fruit needs to be thinned in order to get high quality fruit. Excess fruit thinning also reduces the chance of alternate bearing. Scarlet spur is susceptible to apple scab and canker so proper attention is needed.

SCARLET SPUR (II)

FRUIT DESCRIPTION
The fruit of Scarlet spur is excellent in size and starts coloring (blush red color) 30 days earlier to its parent Oregon spur. The red color is also seen on the stem as well. It differs from the parent in color type, Oregon spur has stripes whereas Scarlet spur has blushed type red color. The fruit of the scarlet spur at harvest has fully intense blushed color with white flesh. The fruit has excellent coloring even under unfavorable conditions and can be harvested before all other red-delicious cultivars. The shape of the fruit is not completely uniform: it may vary from oblong to slightly flat.

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