Quinine (Scientific name: Cinchona) is a plant that has influenced the course of human history. Used for centuries by the indigenous people of the Andes as a cure for fevers, Cinchona became known to Jesuits stationed in Peru in the early seventeenth century. The “Jesuit powder” was subsequently introduced to Europe as a medicine against malaria and remained the only effective treatment well into the twentieth century.

Due to its medicinal properties, Cinchona was a key focus of many Spanish botanical expeditions to South America, including those by Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón, and by José Celestino Mutis. Indeed, so desirable was quinine to the botany of empire that the Spanish forbade the export of Cinchona bark from their territories in 1778 upon pain of death. Yet a reliable supply of quinine remained of great economic and military significance to the British and the Dutch, who succeeded in obtaining seeds and seedlings from South America by stealth.

Britain prospected Peruvian bark trees and grew them in India, having first transplanted them to Kew, one of many botanical gardens that served as a center for medical and colonial botany. In fact, the success of British rule in India depended partly on the control of malaria through the establishment of local Cinchona plantations. In Jules Verne’s 1874 fantasy novel The Mysterious Island, the sulfate of quinine that miraculously saves the life of one of the main characters turns out to be a gift from the reclusive Captain Nemo. Yet far from being a pure gift, Cinchona, like so many other botanical discoveries, was both a cure for suffering and an instrument of power.

While the story of Cinchona is well known, having been studied by historians of botany, empire, science, medicine and art (including Lucile Brockway, J.R. McNeill and Londa Schiebinger), the stories and travels of many other plants remain to be told. To fill that gap, Dumbarton Oaks and JSTOR are combining their scholarly and digital expertise to launch the Plant Humanities Initiative, an endeavor generously supported by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Our joint aim is to advance plant humanities, the interdisciplinary field that explores and communicates the unparalleled significance of plants to human culture.

Plants have shaped human societies even before the establishment of agriculture by providing food, clothing, shelter, remedies and poisons. As the source of psychotropic substances, they have facilitated communion with the sacred in some societies, and bestowed on others the ravages of addiction. As the focus of ethnobotany and archaeobotany, plants yield invaluable insights into the past. In art, they have served as both an ornament and as an index of wealth, networks and values. In these interrelated ways, plants offer remarkable opportunities for interdisciplinary research. It is the goal of the Plant Humanities Initiative to foster this work through scholarly programming, the exploration of primary sources, and digital publication via a new scholarly research tool.

Today’s researchers working in plant humanities today do not have to face the snakes, sinkholes and diseases that plagued López, Pavón and Mutis in South America, but they still face considerable challenges related to collecting, organizing, analyzing and disseminating vast amounts of material. Plants have already inspired ambitious digitization projects, such as the Mellon-funded Global Plants, a project that digitized more than two million plant specimens through an extensive international network of partners, and the Biodiversity Heritage Library, which works to improve research methodology by collaboratively making biodiversity literature openly available.

Yet the sheer volume of digital collections presents additional challenges. There is the question of how to connect the plant specimens, herbaria, print and manuscript publications, and botanical illustrations that they contain to each another and to secondary sources that interpret and contextualize them, a problem exacerbated by inconsistent and shifting language and metadata.

There is the problem of how to make these resources engaging to both scholarly and public audiences, while making the data and resources that informed the scholarly argument available to all. Beyond the challenges posed by the wealth of the materials, there are also practical and institutional obstacles to interdisciplinary work: how to generate conversations across different disciplines yet with a common focus?

Often, as Peter Crane has pointed out, interdisciplinarity comes naturally when you have something concrete (a plant, a place, a focus) that people can bring different perspectives to. The Plant Humanities Initiative will provide a physical home for these concrete conversations through an array of fellowships, summer programs, and teacher residencies at Dumbarton Oaks.

It will also provide a sustained focus and a virtual home at JSTOR through the creation of a new digital tool that will be developed by JSTOR Labs. Whether it helps researchers study the expeditions of famed botanists and naturalists or explore plant specimens through a multidisciplinary lens, the tool will support compelling storytelling.

Just as plants travel across continents, often with human beings following in their wake, so their impact on civilization crosses disciplinary boundaries. The Plant Humanities Initiative will foster interdisciplinary inquiry through the close collaboration of researchers with different skills: from working with rare primary sources to digital and technical expertise, from familiarity with the techniques of material and visual culture to knowledge of plants’ scientific properties.

These teams will be intergenerational, bringing together undergraduate and graduate students with established professionals and faculty members. We hope that this model of interdisciplinary research will allow for rich new perspectives on how plants have shaped human societies.

What is the difference between “in our daily life” and “in our daily lives”?

“In our daily life” assumes that there’s one daily life that we all share. You might use this phrase if you want to underscore a collective experience—an experience shared by everyone you’re talking about, as if they shared a single life.

IMHO, the more natural way to get this idea across is to use the name of the group, instead of the pronoun “our”, to say whose collective life you’re talking about. For example, if you’re talking about an aspect of daily life shared by all of India, you might use the phrase “in Indian daily life” or “in the daily life of India.”

“In our daily lives” assumes that people have separate daily lives. Since people do, literally, have lives distinct from each other, “in our daily lives” is the better phrase to use in most cases.

Contrast the sentences “Seeing movie posters is a regular thing in Indian daily life” and “Seeing movie posters is a regular thing in Indians’ daily lives.” Both are grammatically correct, but they say slightly different things. The first sentence says “In the single entity that is Indian daily life, seeing movie posters happens frequently.” The second one says, “In each particular Indian’s life, seeing movie posters happens frequently.”

“On a daily life” or “In a daily life”?

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Blog Post

Written by Kiara March, Master of International Marketing, London campus, Class of 2016

Ever since I started my Master of International marketing at Hult, my attention has turned to how every decision we take will inevitably change our lives.

While living in beautiful Vienna, a good friend of mine decided to visit me. We took advantage of these days to catch up, submerging in long and exciting conversations about our lives, leaving myself and my partner at the time thirsty for new experiences in that amazing city that she kept bragging about, London. A few days after, we found ourselves deciding to search for opportunities in the UK. After going through very long list of decisions to make, we finally landed and I arrived to Hult, to start a new life journey.

Making the decisions

I cannot even count the amount of times in our daily lives where we have to make decisions. If you invest a few minutes in analyzing it, the result would be the thought of endless products, services and life decisions being made every day – some of them without even much thought;

  • What should I wear?
  • What should I eat?
  • What am I going to do today?
  • What school should I choose?
  • Will I be buying my coffee from Starbucks, McCafe or at my local coffee shop?

In particular, product and services related decisions have turned to be routine answers made automatically every day, they help move the economy of cities, countries and ultimately the world.

Role of marketing

During my first two modules at Hult, I had the great opportunity to attend Professor David James classes, allowing me to understand and conclude that both marketing and advertising accomplish three main functions;

  1. Firstly, we have the transmission of information and idea, which is predominantly cognitive or rational. This specific type of advertising is found in the launch of new products or ads; using techniques that are worth to mention such as slogans and sticky jingles – Sing along… Parapapapaaaa I’m loving it!.
  2. Secondly, we have the creation or consolidation of attitudes and feelings of sympathy and preference. Persuasive and image advertising, as well as comparative advertising, surrounds it.
  3. The last function is the induction of the action, which explains the purchase of the product and is, for this reason, behavioral.

In simpler words, I am suggesting that no matter if we are interested in marketing or not, marketing is a part of almost every minute of our lives. Which leaves us the question: If marketing is so important in our daily lives, is there some way we can use and apply it positively? Simple answer: Yes, yes, yes! Learning to think and even to operate like a salesman is becoming increasingly important, especially in the times we live in, where basically everything you do will shape and determine your personal brand.

Why you need to learn marketing

The magic trick is how you are perceived and how far you can go while playing with these factors (Ta-da!). So let’s take a short cut and go directly to the main reasons why learning about marketing will help us in our daily lives and driving how we want to be perceived. We become good listeners; salesmen and retailers are constantly listening to consumers, producers, partners looking for ways to maximize opportunities and connect with people. We begin to really listen to what others need from our environment or from us.

So what will the outcome be? We will make better decisions, if we keep our eyes wide open and are aware of our surroundings. We will find a way to identify and find the data of the groups to which we belong. Therefore, we will start to recognize their interests and what these mean to them. Then, and only then we will find the way to get the greatest possible advantage to this information, slowly becoming more sensitive when approaching people. At the end of the day, marketing is all about finding ways to reach and communicate with different audiences. In fact, good salespeople are constantly dealing with different crowds, from different environments and fields. In this sense, if we continue the line, we will learn and understand different personality types and to take different approaches to engaging and participate with them following what motivates them. So what is the outcome? We become more attentive, in order to be “on-guard” – marketers need to be aware of what is happening in the industries and so do all of us in our daily life.

Investigate what is going on in your environment, you will be very well informed of the situations you want to be a part of or the people you want to bond with personally and professionally. Take advantage of these skills to make the best out of every situation. If used wisely, you will project the best version of you!

Learn more about Master of International Marketing program

Explore the complexities and challenges of the marketing world with Hult’s Masters in International Marketing. To learn more, take a look at our blog 5 tips On How To Get A Head Start In Today’s Marketing Industry, or get into broader business with a Masters in International Business instead. Download a brochure or get in touch today to find out how Hult can help you to explore everything about the business world, the future, and yourself.

Most Canadians are familiar with traditional forest products like lumber, structural panels, newsprint, pulp, paper, tissue and packaging, but there are also wood components in a wide variety of other products that Canadians use every day. By breaking wood down into its central components—cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin—it is possible to produce a range of substances that are needed to manufacture a variety of common household products.

Here are some examples of common household products that are made from wood components:

  • Bath towels
  • Toothpaste
  • Nail polish
  • Makeup
  • Disinfecting wipes
  • Medications
  • Paints
  • LCD screens
  • Ping-pong balls

Bath towels

Some bath towels are made with rayon, which is produced from the wood component cellulose. Rayon is well suited for use in bath towels because of its high absorbency. Fabrics made with rayon are soft, comfortable and highly absorbent, but they do not insulate body heat, making them ideal for use in hot and humid climates. They can imitate the feel and texture of silk, wool, cotton and linen, and are used in a wide range of products, including clothing, home furnishings and bedding.

Rayon is produced from a type of pulp called dissolving pulp, which is made mainly from cellulose. Cellulose makes up the “skeleton” of all wood fibres, and is the most abundant organic polymer on the planet.

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Toothpaste

Toothpastes can contain several different wood components, including carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), also known as cellulose gum, and xylitol. CMC is used primarily because it has a high viscosity, is non-toxic and is hypoallergenic. It is added to food products as a thickening agent and/or to prevent mixtures from separating during storage in products like dry cake mixes, instant macaroni and cheese dinners, and chewing gums. It is also used in many non-food products, such as toothpastes, laxatives, diet pills, eye drops, water-based paints and detergents.

CMC is manufactured by mixing cellulose with chlorinated acetic acid (acetic acid is the chemical name for vinegar). This makes it soluble and hydrophilic—binding easily with water molecules—and ideal for use in liquids and gels.

Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that can be made from xylose, the sugar molecule from hemi-cellulose. Xylitol is usually extracted from birch trees or other hardwoods and is used mainly as a sweetener in oral hygiene products, such as toothpaste, fluoride tablets and mouthwashes.

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Nail polish

Some nail polishes contain the wood component nitrocellulose. Nitrocellulose comes from cellulose and is added to nail polish—as well as leather finishes, wood varnishes and printing inks—because of its strength and quick-dry properties.

Nitrocellulose is produced by exposing cellulose to a powerful nitrating agent like nitric acid. This is done in a highly controlled setting, as nitrocellulose in its pure form is extremely flammable.

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Makeup

Some makeup products contain the wood component carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), also known as cellulose gum. CMC is added to makeups like liquid foundations to ensure that the dissolved components stay dissolved during storage and use. CMC is used primarily because it has high viscosity, is non-toxic and is hypoallergenic. These properties make it extremely important in the production of many products, including toothpastes, laxatives, diet pills, water-based paints and detergents.

CMC is manufactured by mixing cellulose with chlorinated acetic acid (acetic acid is the chemical name for vinegar). This makes it soluble and hydrophilic—binding easily with water molecules—and ideal for use in liquids and gels.

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Disinfecting wipes

Disinfecting wipes are often made of rayon, which is produced from the wood component cellulose, because of its softness and high absorbency. These characteristics allow the rayon sheet to hold a disinfecting liquid while maintaining its texture and shape. Rayon is used in a wide range of other products, including clothing, home furnishings and bedding.

Rayon is produced from a type of pulp called dissolving pulp, which is made mainly from cellulose. Cellulose makes up the “skeleton” of all wood fibres, and is the most abundant organic polymer on the planet.

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Medications

Many of the pills in Canadians’ medicine cabinets contain the wood component microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). MCC is used by the pharmaceutical industry as a carrier. Carriers are inert substances used in pills and tablets to ensure that the active ingredients are effectively delivered to a patient’s body. MCC is used in medications because it compacts well under minimum pressure, easily binds with active ingredients and creates tablets that are hard and stable but that can be broken down once consumed. Because it is a wood component, MCC is safe for consumption and physiologically inert. MCC is also used in food and cosmetics manufacturing as a texturizing, stabilizing and thickening agent—for example, in many yogurts and shower gels.

MCC is made from high-purity dissolving pulp, a type of pulp made from pure cellulose. Cellulose makes up the “skeleton” of all wood fibres, and is the most abundant organic polymer on the planet. MCC is produced by isolating the crystalline portion of the cellulose, hydrolyzing it to achieve a uniform molecular structure, and then drying it.

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Paints

Some paints contain the wood component hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), a gelling and thickening agent used to match the texture of a liquid product to consumers’ needs. For example, manufacturers use HEC to produce low-spatter paints. HEC is also widely used in cosmetics, adhesives, detergents and other household products.

HEC is produced in a process similar to that used to make carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), which is an ingredient in toothpaste and makeup. Like CMC, HEC bonds easily with water, but the strength of the bond is relatively lower, making HEC well suited for making thinner liquids.

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LCD screens

The LCD screens of many of today’s electronics contain the wood component cellulose triacetate (TAC). TAC is applied as a layer within these screens and acts as a polarizing film. Both high-purity dissolving pulp and cotton linter are used to make TAC. The chemical composition of TAC makes it possible to apply it in a thin solid film with excellent optical clarity.

A similar wood component, cellulose acetate, is used in a variety of products, from cigarette filters to eyeglass frames. Cellulose acetates and cellulose triacetates are made by reacting cellulose with acetic acid (vinegar).

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Ping-pong balls

Ping-pong balls are made from the wood component celluloid, a mixture of nitrocellulose (used in nail polish) and the plant-based plasticizer camphor. Celluloid is used in ping-pong balls because it is easily moulded and shaped, while allowing for the high-bounce property of the balls. Celluloid was originally used as a replacement for ivory in dolls, jewellery and utensils. Today, its primary uses are in the production of ping-pong balls and guitar picks.

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1000 Products Made from Bamboo

What products can be made from bamboo? Clients frequently ask us about the different uses of bamboo, but the better question would be: What cannot be made from bamboo? Or as the ancient Asian saying goes: “A man is born in a bamboo cradle and goes away in a bamboo coffin. Everything in between is possible with bamboo!”

It’s true though, from edible bamboo shoots to construction, medicine, bamboo fabric or biofuel it is all been done before. For the past 15 years, bamboo experts have been experimenting with the multiple uses of bamboo and are still discovering new applications everyday, bamboo fiber for the garment and automotive industries, flooring boards, veneers as thin as 0.2 mm, are just some of many examples.

Bamboo panels, especially floors, are more and more in demand all over the world, because they have the texture of marble and the elegance of wood; in addition, they are strong, durable, smooth, clean, non-sliding and resistant to humidity.

A short film commissioned by INBAR for the World Expo in Shanghai, profiling bamboo – and its many innovative uses as a strong, lightweight, sustainable, carbon capturing material, including surfboards, bikes and building materials.

The challenges we face today is to further improve and innovate the uses of bamboo. Since bamboo is the fastest growing plant on earth and a sustainable building material, it could easily substitute all known wood applications without having to cut down entire bamboo groves or plantations. Better yet, bamboo continuously grows after harvest without having to re-plant it. Bamboo also converts about 35% more CO2 into oxygen than a regular tree.

The bamboo products we see on the market today, are just the tip of the iceberg, we predict that more and more innovative bamboo applications will enter the consumer markets rapidly. Therefore it is an exciting era to live in if you are also a firm believer of how bamboo can contribute to a greener and cleaner environment. We can’t change our consumption based economy, but we can certainly change the resources we use and the way we manufacture our products!

Below is a list of common uses for bamboo. Please note that not all bamboo species are suited for every single application. Some species are edible while most are not, some can be used as structural timber while other only serve for ornamental use or pulp.

1. Forestry

  • Erosion Control
  • Soil Stabilization
  • Environmental Remediation
  • Windbreaks
  • CO2 Sequestration
  • Sound Screens
  • Commercial Plantations
  • Landscaping

2. Wood Industry

  • Particle Board
  • Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)
  • Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
  • Mat Board
  • Corrugated Roofing Sheets
  • Flooring
  • Molding
  • Beams
  • Decking
  • Plybamboo
  • Veneer
  • Lumber
  • Strand Woven Bamboo (SWB)
  • Poles

3. Pulp and Paper Industry

  • Newsprint
  • Bond Paper
  • Toilet Tissue
  • Cardboard
  • Cement Sacks
  • Coffee Filters

4. Textile Industry

  • Clothing
  • Underwear
  • Socks
  • Bullet Proof Vests
  • Blankets
  • Towels
  • Sheets
  • Pillows
  • Mattresses
  • Baby Diapers

5. Bioenergy Industry

  • Charcoal
  • Biofuel
  • Pyrolysis
  • Firewood
  • Gasification
  • Briquettes
  • Pellets
  • Biomass

6. Food and Beverage Industry

  • Bamboo Shoots
  • Bamboo Wine
  • Bamboo Tea
  • Bamboo Beer
  • Bamboo Vinegar
  • Charcoal Coated Peanuts

7. Automotive Industry

  • Steering Wheels
  • Dashboards
  • Interior Trim
  • Body Parts

8. Sports and Recreation Industry

  • Bicycles
  • Skateboards
  • Surfboards
  • Snowboards
  • Polo Balls
  • Baseball Bats
  • Ski Poles
  • Fishing Rods
  • Golf Tees
  • Inline Skates

9. Electronics Industry

  • IPhone/IPad Cases
  • Mouse
  • Keyboards
  • Headphones
  • Speakers
  • Laptops

10. High Tech Industry

  • Bioplastics
  • Composites

11. Farming Industry

  • Greenhouses
  • Fencing
  • Fish Traps
  • Farming Tools
  • Baskets
  • Animal Fodder
  • Beehives
  • Containers
  • Animal Pens
  • Props and Support Sticks
  • Water Pipes
  • Waterwheels

12. And Everything Else…

  • Houses
  • Furniture
  • Bridges
  • Cutting Boards
  • Baskets
  • Toys
  • Blinds
  • Door and Window Frames
  • Medicine
  • Bathtubs
  • Steamers
  • Weapons
  • Musical Instruments
  • Chopsticks
  • Helmets
  • Incense Sticks
  • Matches
  • etc…

Making Food

What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make food from light, water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide. What is chlorophyll?
Chlorophyll is the green pigment, or color, found in plants that helps the plant make food.

Plants are very important to us. All food people eat comes directly or indirectly from plants.

Directly from plants: Indirectly from plants:
For example, apples come from an apple tree. The flour used to make bread comes from a wheat plant. Steak comes from a cow, and we all know that cows are animals, not plants, right? But what does the cow eat? It eats grass and grains—PLANTS!

So all the foods we eat come from plants. But what do plants eat? They make their own food!

What Do Plants Need to Make Food?

Plants need several things to make their own food.
They need:

  • chlorophyll, a green pigment found in the leaves of plants (see the layer of chlorophyll in the cross-section of a leaf below)

  • light (either natural sunlight or artificial light, like from a light bulb)
  • carbon dioxide (CO2)(a gas found in the air; one of the gases people and animals breathe out when they exhale)
  • water (which the plant collects through its roots)
  • nutrients and minerals (which the plant collects from the soil through its roots)

Plants make food in their leaves. The leaves contain a pigment called chlorophyll, which colors the leaves green. Chlorophyll can make food the plant can use from carbon dioxide, water, nutrients, and energy from sunlight. This process is called photosynthesis.

During the process of photosynthesis, plants release oxygen into the air. People and animals need oxygen to breathe.

Disclaimer/Credits Copyright © 2009 Missouri Botanical Garden

Plants and Life on Earth

What is the environment?
The environment is everything that lives on Earth plus the air, sun, water, weather, and the Earth itself. Sing a Song about the Role of Plants! Teachers—download lesson plans to use in your classroom!

Plants help the environment (and us!) in many different ways:

Plants make food

Plants are the only organisms that can convert light energy from the sun into food. And plants produce ALL of the food that animals, including people, eat. Even meat. The animals that give us meat, such as chickens and cows, eat grass, oats, corn, or some other plants.

Plants make oxygen

One of the materials that plants produce as they make food is oxygen gas. This oxygen gas, which is an important part of the air, is the gas that plants and animals must have in order to stay alive. When people breathe, it is the oxygen that we take out of the air to keep our cells and bodies alive. All of the oxygen available for living organisms comes from plants.

Plants provide habitats for animals

Plants are the primary habitat for thousands of other organisms. Animals live in, on, or under plants. Plants provide shelter and safety for animals. Plants also provide a place for animals to find other food. As a habitat, plants alter the climate. On a small scale, plants provide shade, help moderate the temperature, and protect animals from the wind. On a larger scale, such as in tropical rainforests, plants actually change the rainfall patterns over large areas of the earth’s surface.

Plants help make and preserve soil

In the forest and the prairie, the roots of plants help hold the soil together. This reduces erosion and helps conserve the soil. Plants also help make soil. Soil is made up of lots of particles of rocks which are broken down into very small pieces. When plants die, their decomposed remains are added to the soil. This helps to make the soil rich with nutrients.

Plants provide useful products for people

Many plants are important sources of products that people use, including food, fibers (for cloth), and medicines. Plants also help provide some of our energy needs. In some parts of the world, wood is the primary fuel used by people to cook their meals and heat their homes. Many of the other types of fuel we use today, such as coal, natural gas, and gasoline, were made from plants that lived millions of years ago.

Plants beautify

Plants, because of their beauty, are important elements of out human world. When we build houses and other buildings, we never think the job is done until we have planted trees, shrubs, and flowers to make what we have built much nicer.

Disclaimer/Credits Copyright © 2009 Missouri Botanical Garden

My Essay Point

Plants play a very important part in our daily life. Greenery is essential to make the environment healthy and pollution free. With people becoming aware of the deterioration of the quality of the air, they have assumed more significance than ever before. Let’s find out how they impact our lives in detail?

Food: Plants are considered as the only producers of the food. They also provide food to humans and animals. Due to the presence of nutrients such as carbohydrates and proteins, plants have become indispensable for the survival of life on earth. Numerous foods forms such as vegetables, fruits and mushrooms are procured from the plants and they have become the staple diet of the humans over a period of time.

Clothes: If you are thinking clothes are made chemically, it is a misconception. In fact, cotton used for making shirts and trousers is produced from the crop. The fabric material is environment-friendly and doesn’t pollute the atmosphere. In addition, jute used for making a large number of yarns is grown from the crops in the field. They are produced in huge amounts, processed and send to the market.

Furniture and homes: Trees provide us wood to make amazing and classy furniture that last for a very long period of time. For instance, oak and timber are used in lots of applications. They are known for durability, style and finishing to enhance the appearance of the home. If plants are present in the vicinity of the person, they tend to reduce stress and anxiety.

Flowers: The growth of flowers in the garden plays a very important role in changing the mood of the people. They are available in different varieties as well as vibrant colors to impart aesthetic beauty to the surroundings. Flowers are also used in making garlands and for religious purposes. They emit fragrance of different varieties and captivate the imagination of the people.

Medications: Plants are rich sources of medicines that assist in the treatment of various ailments. For instance, Ginseng is used for enhancing the immunity of the body. Moreover, Digoxin procured from the plants is vital in cases of heart failure.

Also read: Usage of biology in everyday life

Ecological balance: Plants make food by absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen into the atmosphere. Oxygen is important for the humans to breathe as they increase the blood circulation in the body. Planting trees in large numbers prevent the soil erosion and reduces the instances of the natural flood. If the carbon dioxide is absorbed from the environment, it helps to reduce the greenhouse effect. Due to a large number of plants and trees, people do not get plenty of rainfall.

Improvement in soil fertility: One of the most important effects of planting trees is that they increase the soil fertility by many notches. Dried and dead leaves fall onto the ground and provide manure to the soil. It plays a very important role in enhancing the fertility to create more trees.
In a nutshell, it can be said that plants are necessary for sustaining all kinds of life forms on the planet.

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