Quick Guide to Growing Cabbage

  • Plant spring cabbage 4 weeks before the last frost.
  • Space your cabbage according to the guidelines on the plant tag, in an area that gets 6 or more hours of sun. Plant 1 to 2 inches deep in well-drained, fertile soil with a pH of 6.5 to 6.8.
  • Improve native soil conditions by mixing in several inches of compost or other rich organic matter.
  • Protect new plants from cold weather by planting them through black plastic, which will help keep the soil warm.
  • Water regularly by giving plants 1 to 1.5 inches of water weekly.
  • Before planting, give cabbage a continuous food supply by mixing a slow-release plant food into the soil.
  • Lay down a 3-inch layer of mulch to help retain moisture and keep weeds at bay.
  • Harvest cabbage when the head is firm.

Soil, Planting, and Care

Set out new spring plants early enough so that they can mature before the heat of summer, about 4 weeks before the last frost. For the best chance at success, be sure to start with strong, vigorous young Bonnie Plants®, which are already well on their way to maturity, giving you a jump-start on your garden . New plants just out of a greenhouse need to be protected from freezing weather. In the spring, consider planting through black plastic to help warm the soil. Plant fall cabbage 6 to 8 weeks before the first frost. Growing plants that have been exposed to cool weather become “hardened” and are tolerant of frost. Cabbage that matures in cool weather is deliciously sweet. Like most vegetables, cabbage needs at least 6 hours of full sun each day; more is better. It also needs fertile, well-drained, moist soil with plenty of rich organic matter. The soil pH should be between 6.5 and 6.8 for optimum growth and to discourage clubroot disease.

To be sure about your soil pH, get the soil tested. You can buy a kit or have a soil test done through your regional Cooperative Extension office. Apply fertilizer and lime if needed, using the results of the soil test as a guide.

In the absence of a soil test, add nitrogen-rich amendments such as blood meal, cottonseed meal, or composted manure to the soil, or amend the soil with Miracle-Gro® Performance Organics™ All Purpose In-Ground Soil to add valuable nutrition and improve texture. Plants grow best with a combination of good soil and just the right plant food, so work a top-quality continuous-release plant food such as Miracle-Gro® Performance Organics™ All Purpose Plant Nutrition Granules into the soil before planting. (As with any product, be sure to follow label directions.) Another option is to skip the in-ground garden in favor of growing your cabbages in containers filled with premium potting mix, such as aged compost-enriched Miracle-Gro® Performance Organics™ All Purpose Container Mix. That’s really the simplest way to know your plant roots have precisely the environment they need to grow.

Cabbage is easy to transplant. Set plants so that 1-2″ of the main stem is buried. Space according to directions on the Bonnie label. Generally, this is 12 to 24 inches apart in a row, depending upon the variety and the size of head it makes. For maximum size, be generous with the spacing. Our O.S. Cross Cabbage (known informally as Bonnie’s “Mega Cabbage”) for example, needs all the room you can give it!

Cabbage demands even moisture to produce good heads. Mulch with compost, finely ground leaves, or finely ground bark to keep the soil cool and moist and to keep down weeds. Water regularly, applying 1 to 1.5 inches of water per week if it doesn’t rain. You

can measure the amount of water with a rain gauge left in the garden.

Fertilize plants again with a liquid fertilizer such as fish emulsion or 20-20-20 after they begin to develop new leaves and when they start forming heads.

Cabbage seedling

Cabbage seed starting requires the prospect of cool days and nights.

Cabbage is a cool-season crop best planted in early spring or mid- to late summer. Cabbage thrives in temperatures between 65°F and 75°F (18-24°C) and can withstand cold temperatures down to 25°F (-4°C).

To grow cabbage where summers are warm, sow the seed of a fast-maturing variety in early spring. Where summers are cool, sow seed in mid- to late spring for a fall and early winter harvest. Where summers are very warm or hot, sow seed in midsummer for a late fall and winter harvest.

There are many varieties of cabbage to choose from—savoy, looseleaf, ballhead, red, green, purple, or white. Some varieties mature quickly, others take longer. Some are suited for warm regions, others can withstand freezing winters.

Cabbage matures in 65 to 100 days depending on the variety.

More tips at How to Grow Cabbage.

Cabbage Sowing and Planting Tips

  • Start cabbage from seed or transplants.
  • Seed is viable for 4 years.
  • Start seeds indoors 6 to 4 weeks before the last frost in spring or 12 to 10 weeks before the first frost in autumn for a fall or winter crop.
  • Start seeds in individual pots or flats.
  • Sow seed ¼ to ½ (6-8 mm) inch deep in the seed-starting mix.
  • Keep the mix moist but not wet.
  • Seeds should germinate in 5 to 8 days at an optimal temperature of 77°F (25°C) or thereabouts.
  • Transplant seedlings into the garden when they 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) tall with 2- to 4-leaves and after daytime temperatures reach 50°F (10°C); firm transplants into the soil by hand.
  • Cabbage prefers a soil pH range of 6.0 to 7.5; a pH of 7.2 to 7.5 is best if clubroot disease has been a problem in the past.
  • When transplanting out seedlings set them deeper than they grew in pots or flats.
  • Grow cabbage in full sun for best yield—tolerates partial shade.
  • Add 3- to 4- inches (7-10 cm) of compost and well-aged manure into planting bed, before transplanting; cabbage needs friable, moisture-holding soil.
  • Avoid planting where cabbage family crops have grown recently.
  • Space plants 12 to 24 inches (30-60 cm) apart.
  • Space rows 24-42 inches (60-106 cm) apart.
  • Protect the seedlings from the cold for 2 to 3 weeks after planting covering them with a cloche or plastic tunnel or cold frame.
  • Fertilize with an organic fertilizer such as fish emulsion at half strength.
  • Common pest enemies are aphids, cabbage worms and loopers, cabbage worms, and cutworms.

Interplanting: Interplant cabbage with beets, green onions, spinach, and herbs.

Container Growing: Choose a container with a minimum depth of 20 inches (51 cm).

Cabbage Planting Calendar

  • 10-8 weeks before the last frost in spring start seed indoors for transplanting later.
  • 6-4 weeks before the last frost in spring: set out transplants in the garden or direct-sow seed in a plastic tunnel or cold frame.
  • 4-3 weeks before the last frost in spring: direct-sow in the garden when the minimum soil temperature is 45°

For Fall and Winter Harvest:

  • 14-12 weeks before the first frost in fall: direct-sow in the garden for fall and winter harvest.
  • 12-10 weeks before the first frost in fall: transplant seedlings into the garden for fall harvest.

Start cabbage seeds indoors 6 to 4 weeks before the last frost or 12 to 10 weeks before the first frost in autumn for a fall or winter crop.

Recommended Cabbage Varieties

  • ‘Dynamo’ disease and split resistant, early season.
  • ‘Fargo’ green, early maturing.
  • ‘Primax’ open-pollinated, split resistant, early season.
  • ‘Red Express’ early maturing.
  • ‘Gonzales’ dwarf, green.
  • ‘Tendersweet’ midseason, green, disease and split resistant.
  • ‘Regal Red’ midseason.
  • ‘Drumhead’ savoy, curled leaf.
  • ‘Red Perfection’ long growing season.
  • ‘Storage No. 4’ weather stress performer, stores well.
  • ‘Savoy King’ split resistant All-America winter.

Botanical Name: Brassica oleracea var. capitata

Cabbage is a member of the Brassicacea (Cruciferae) or cabbage family.

More tips at Cabbage Planting.

’Tis the season of the crisp winter salad. Ice-white fennel, thinly sliced and tossed with peppery oil, clementine juice and whole, flat parsley leaves; white cabbage shredded with russet apples and young walnuts, dressed with walnut oil and clear honey; maincrop carrots with pomegranate seeds and mint. Salads that snap and crackle with crisp winter vegetables and fruit.

Brussels sprouts have already had quite a few outings in the salad bowl this winter. Raw and shredded, they have been tossed with a mayonnaise-based dressing made lighter with yogurt, then rippled through with Stilton and poppy seeds. Lightly steamed, they were a surprising hit when cut into wedges and mixed with a dressing of groundnut, walnut oils, grain mustard, flat parsley, toasted pecan nuts and curls of crisp, smoked bacon.

Red cabbage, always a favourite for me at this time of year, is pretty fine raw, but I like it better when it has been given an hour or so in an acidic mixture of wine vinegar and citrus juices. The colours brighten, the texture relaxes but remains crisp and the lemon and orange juices take away any overly cabbage notes.

Salads rarely constitute a meal at this time of year. I will often add sliced chicken breast that I have roasted with thyme, garlic and lemon, or perhaps a duck leg, sautéed and shredded. Smoked fish is smashing with raw fennel and cabbage. Smoked mackerel with thinly sliced fennel, lemon and russet apple; smoked oysters tossed with steamed and sliced Jerusalem artichokes and chopped hazelnuts or smoked eel, pickled carrot and rashers of smoked bacon cooked so crisp they shatter like ice.

Beetroot is a good one for adding sweet, earthy notes as well as crispness, but it essential to add any slices or curls at the last minute. No one wants a Barbie-pink salad. I do sometimes bake my beets first, peeling and cutting the ruby globes into wedges, then folding them into the other ingredients still warm from the oven.

This week I marinated a pork chop in a Southeast Asian mix of soy, sake and rice vinegar before grilling and tossing it with raw brussels sprouts and water chestnuts. The result: a scrunchy, hearty, hot and cold salad for a winter’s day, so good it might even come out on Christmas day.

Brussels sprouts, water chestnuts, pork and pak choi

If you prefer, use the recipe with white cabbage instead of the brussels sprouts.

Serves 3-4
For the marinade:
pork chops 2, medium sized
sake 3 tbsp
light soy sauce 3 tbsp
groundnut oil 2 tbsp
rice-wine vinegar 1 tbsp

For the salad:
water chestnuts a 225g can
brussels sprouts 400g
spring onions 2
chillies – small, hot 2
pak choi 1 head, shredded
sesame seeds 1 tbsp

Put the sake into a shallow dish, add the soy sauce, the groundnut oil and the vinegar, then place the chops in the marinade and leave for an hour in a cool place, turning from time to time.

Drain the water chestnuts, then slice each one in half. Finely chop the spring onions, discarding the very darkest of the green leaves if they are tough.

Finely slice the chillies then add them, with the seeds if you wish, to the onions and water chestnuts.

Trim the brussels sprouts of any damaged outer leaves, then shred the sprouts finely into slices about the width of a pound coin. Add them to the chillies and onions. Roughly slice the head of pak choi and add to the rest of the salad.

Remove the chops from their marinade, then cook under a preheated grill till the outside is nicely browned. Remove from the heat and leave to rest. Chop the sesame seeds finely.

Warm the marinade in a small pan. Slice the pork into thick strips and add to the brussels sprouts and spring onions. Pour the marinade over the salad, then toss gently. Scatter with the chopped sesame seeds and serve.

Nigel Slater’s red cabbage with fennel and carrot salad recipe. Photograph: Jonathan Lovekin/Observer

Red cabbage with fennel and carrot

Clean, crisp flavours here. The perfect winter salad to eat before or after a pork or game roast.

Serves 2-3
red cabbage half a medium one
carrots 100g, skinny
fennel 1
skinned almonds 100g, fried and tossed with salt
black grapes 120g
radish sprouts a handful

For the marinade:
white-wine vinegar 100ml
ginger 25g

For the dressing:
egg yolk 1
Dijon 1 tbsp
olive oil 5 tbsp

Finely shred the leaves of the red cabbage, discarding the tough bits of stalk. Slice the carrots finely lengthways and toss with the cabbage.

Peel the ginger then grate it very finely, almost to a purée, then stir it into the wine vinegar. Pour over the vegetables, toss them gently then put them to one side, covered, for a good hour. Toss them occasionally to keep the vegetables wet with marinade.

Halve the head of fennel, then slice each half thinly and add it to the vinegared carrot and cabbage. Halve and seed the grapes.

Put the egg yolk in a bowl, stir in the mustard and a pinch of salt, beat in the olive oil. Pour the dressing into the red cabbage and carrot, then add the grapes, almonds and radish sprouts.

Email Nigel at [email protected] Follow Nigel on Twitter @NigelSlater

How does cabbage plants make seed?

Can you tell me how cabbage plants make seeds? Ken C.

Answer: Cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale and kohlrabi are all of the same species, Brassica oleracea, and have the same seeding and pollination habit. These plants produce a flower stalk that needs to be cross-pollinated (meaning a plant will not accept its own pollen) by insects.

The cabbage plant sends this flower/seed stalk directly out of the cabbage core. Home growers, unless they live in a very long growing zone, in the fall will need to select at least three firm ready-to-eat heads and remove the plants, roots and all, and store in a root cellar, refrigerator or cold basement. Keep the roots damp and cold during the winter.

In the early spring you would replant the plants, leaving two to three feet in between them. They will produce the seed stalk directly from the center of the plant. Since cabbage seeds ripen slowly and fall off immediately when they are ripe, you might want to either harvest the whole plant as the pods turn yellow or pick the dry pods when they turn brown.

When planted in the open garden – and if you are growing any other members of the Brassica family – you might be surprised what your seeds develop into since the plants can be cross-pollinated with broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, etc. But they might be interesting in flavor.

Good luck if you give this a try.

Karen

Cabbage Growing and Seed Saving Tips

Growing Tips

Cabbage does best in cold climates and temperature has a significant impact on seed production. Cabbage should be planted such that the plant faces its coldest temperature when it has matured. Sow in early to mid-fall, so that maturity occurs in late fall and flowers bloom in early winter.
Cabbage is pollinated by bees, making isolation an important concern for those interested in saving seed. For instance, cabbage will easily cross with Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, and kale. To preserve the integrity of your cabbage seeds separate broccoli from other members of Brassica oleracea (Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, collards, kale) by at least 1000 meters.
Cabbage does not produce flowers after heads are harvested – flowers grow out the middle of the head. Therefore, we recommend planting several plants just for seed production. In order to encourage flowering, an “X” crosscut can be made at the top of the mature cabbage head – be sure to keep the cut shallow as to not damage the growing point of the inner core.

Sources:

Cabbage is a cool-weather crop. Grow cabbage in spring so that it comes to harvest before the summer heat or start cabbage in mid to late summer so that it comes to harvest during the cool days of autumn, winter, or early spring.

  • Start seeds indoors 4 to 6 weeks before the last frost in spring.
  • Place cabbage transplants in the garden when they are 3 to 4 inches tall as early as 3 to 4 weeks before the last frost in spring.
  • Direct sow seed outdoors when the soil can be worked in spring.
  • In mild-winter regions, start seed in late summer for a winter or spring harvest.

Where to Grow Cabbage

  • Grow cabbage in soil rich in organic matter that is well-drained. Prepare planting beds ahead of planting by covering beds with 2 to 3 inches of aged compost or commercial organic planting mix and turning it under to 12 inches deep.
  • Cabbage grows best where the soil pH is between 6.5 and 6.8.
  • If clubroot disease has been a problem, adjust the soil pH to 7.0 or slightly higher by adding lime.
  • Add plenty of well-aged compost to planting beds before planting. In regions where the soil is sandy or where there is heavy rain, supplement the soil with nitrogen.
  • Adding a moderate amount of nitrogen-rich blood meal or cottonseed meal to the soil ahead of planting will enhance leafy growth.

How to Grow Cabbage: Start seeds indoors 4 to 6 weeks before the last frost in spring. Sow seed outdoors when the soil can be worked in spring.

Cabbage Planting Time

  • Cabbage grows best in regions where there is a long, cool growing season with temperatures between 45° and 75°F.
  • Cabbage can tolerate frost and briefly temperatures as low as 20°F.
  • Cabbage will bolt and go to seed in temperatures greater than 80°F.
  • Start seeds indoors 4 to 6 weeks before the last frost in spring.
  • Sow seed outdoors when the soil can be worked in spring.
  • Place transplants in the garden when they are 3 to 4 inches tall as early as 3 to 4 weeks before the last frost in spring.
  • In cool-summer regions, plant cabbage in late spring for a fall harvest.
  • In mild-winter regions, start seed in late summer—about 6 to 8 weeks before the first frost–for a winter or spring harvest.
  • Cabbage comes to harvest in 80 to 180 days from seed and in 60 to 105 days from transplants depending upon the variety.

Spring cabbage starting tips: Plant Spring Cabbage in Fall.

Transplant cabbage to the garden when plants are 4 to 6 weeks old with 4 to 5 true leaves. These seedlings are protected from birds and cutworms.

Cabbage Planting and Spacing

  • Sow cabbage seeds a ½ inch deep spaced 1 inch apart; thin plants to 18 to 24 inches apart.
  • Transplant cabbage to the garden when plants are 4 to 6 weeks old with 4 to 5 true leaves.
  • Set leggy or crooked stemmed plants deeply; you can bury 1 to 2 inches of the main stem even up to just below the top two sets of leaves.
  • Space seedlings 18 to 24 inches apart in rows 24 to 36 inches apart. You can space plants closer but the heads will be smaller at maturity.
  • In early spring plant cabbage through black plastic or garden fabric set in place to warm the soil. Cut an x in the fabric to set out transplants.
  • Plant succession crops every two weeks or plant seeds and transplant at the same time or plant early and midseason varieties at the same time so that they come to harvest at different times.
  • Plant 4 to 8 cabbage plants for each household member.

More tips: Cabbage Seed Starting Tips.

Container Growing Cabbage

  • A cabbage will grow easily in a container at least 8 inches deep and wide.
  • In large containers grow cabbage on 12-inch centers.
  • Keep the soil evenly moist, do not let the soil go dry and do not overwater.
  • Feed cabbage growing in containers with compost tea or a dilute solution of fish emulsion every two weeks.

Watering and Feeding Cabbage

  • Cabbage requires regular, even watering. Uneven watering can result in stunted or cracked heads. Give cabbage 1 to 1½ inches of water every week; 1 inch equal 16 gallons.
  • As plants reach maturity, cut back on watering to avoid splitting heads.
  • Fertilize cabbage at midseason when plants are established with a high nitrogen fertilizer such as 10-5-5 or feed plants a dilute solution of fish emulsion every two weeks.

Companion Plants for Cabbage

  • Grow cabbage with beets, celery, fragrant herbs, onions, potatoes; avoid pole beans, strawberries, tomatoes.

Caring for Cabbage Care

  • Mulch around cabbage—especially in warm weather—to preserve soil moisture and keep the soil cool in warm weather.
  • Cabbage heads will split when they grow too fast and take up too much water.
  • To prevent this damage, twist heads a quarter turn to separate some roots and interrupt water uptake a week in advance of harvest.
  • If heads are small at harvest, add nitrogen to the soil next season and plant earlier.

Cabbage Pests

  • Cabbage can be attacked by cutworms, cabbage loopers (preceded by small yellow and white moths), imported cabbage worms, cabbage root maggots, slugs, and aphids.
  • Place a protective collar around young plants to exclude cutworms.
  • Handpick loopers and worms and destroy them or spray with insecticidal soap or Bacillus thuringiensis.
  • Cabbage maggots are the larvae of a fly. Plant radishes near cabbages to repel the flies. Place row covers over seedlings or plant through the garden fabric to keep flies from laying eggs in the soil. Mound diatomaceous earth or hot pepper around stems if maggots are in the soil.

Cabbage looper and other insects will damage heads

Cabbage Diseases

  • Black rot, also called blackleg, clubroot, and yellows are fungal diseases which can attack cabbage
  • Blackleg leaves yellow, V-shaped lesions on leaf edges. Plants with clubroot wilt and look stunted; there will be galls on the roots. Cabbage yellows is marked by the yellowing of lower leaves.
  • To avoid fungal diseases plant disease-resistant varieties or seeds that have been hot water treated. Plant in well-drained soil. Water with compost tea.
  • Remove and destroy diseased plants immediately.
  • Rotate crops on a three-year cycle.

More tips: Cabbage Growing Problems: Troubleshooting.

Cabbage for fall or winter harvest can sit under a blanket of snow without harm.

Harvesting Cabbage

  • Cabbage will be ready for harvest in 80 to 180 days from seed depending on the variety or in 60 to 105 days from transplanting.
  • Cut cabbage when heads are firm and the base of the head is 4 to 10 inches across.
  • Harvest before the weather becomes too warm in spring. Cabbage will be sweet if harvested in cool weather.
  • Cabbage for fall or winter harvest can sit under a blanket of snow without harm. Simply pull away the spoiled outer leaves after harvest.
  • If you want additional heads from the same plant, cut the head at the center of the stem but leaves several leaves attached to the stem stump. Small heads—about the size of a baseball–will grow from the stalks for later harvest.

More tips: How to Harvest and Store Cabbage.

Storing and Preserving Cabbage

  • Cabbage will keep in the refrigerator for 1 to 2 weeks or longer.
  • Cabbage also can be dried and frozen or cured in brine as sauerkraut.
  • Cabbage seeds can be sprouted.

Savoy cabbage has crinkled leaves.

Cabbage Varieties to Grow

Cabbage Varieties by Time of Harvest

More about cabbage varieties: Choosing Cabbage Varieties to Grow.

About Cabbage

  • Cabbage is a hardy biennial grown as a cool-weather annual that can tolerate frost but not heat.
  • Cabbage grows an enlarged terminal bud of broad, overlapping leaves called a head atop a short, stubby stem. Heads can be round, flat, or pointed. Leaves can be smooth or crinkled in shades of green or reddish-purple and the head can be round, flat or pointed.
  • Cabbage varieties can come to harvest early in the season, midseason, or late season.
  • Exposed to severe frost, too little moisture, or too much heat cabbage will not form a head but instead bolt and go directly to seed.
  • Cabbage heads–which are mostly water–will expand and split if the weather grows too warm as the heads take up water more quickly than the moisture can transpire from tightly wrapped leaves.
  • Botanical name: Brassica oleracea capitata
  • Origin: Southern Europe

More tips: Planting Cabbage.

Grow 80 vegetables and herbs: KITCHEN GARDEN GROWERS’ GUIDE

To keep your cabbage growing and healthy, you’ll need to take care of it properly. Use the information below to guide you to harvesting a happy, healthy cabbage!

Planting your cabbage: Be sure you’ve planted your cabbage properly. Use steps to plant, from our “Planting Your Cabbage” page.

Once your cabbage is planted, let the sunshine in: Cabbages need full sun – at least six to eight hours of direct sunlight per day.

Water wisely: It’s best to water in the morning and at the base of the plant (soil level) keeping the foliage dry. Plants should be watered when the top 2 inches of the soil becomes dry to the touch. To test, just stick your finger or a pencil about 2 inches down, where the stem enters the soil. If the soil is dry, 2” down, it’s time to water, if wet, wait until the soil is dry. Be careful not to over-water, as over-watering can cause problems, such as root rot, especially in containers or raised beds.

Feed your food plant: All edible plants draw nutrients from the soil which can quickly exhaust and deplete it without the help of a fertilizer. Working together with an adult, feed your cabbage with Miracle-Gro® Shake ‘n Feed® Tomato, Fruit & Vegetable Plant Food or another fertilizer, specifically formulated for vegetables and always follow label directions for rates and intervals.

Pull the weeds: Check for and pull any weeds growing around your cabbage. Weeds steal water and nutrients from your plant and can harbor insects and bacteria!

Patrol for pests: Scout on the underside of the big cabbage leaves often, where insect pests and worms like to hide. If you find insects or worms, hand-pick pests and drop them in a bucket of soapy water or dislodge them with a jet of water from the hose. If you find a constant invasion, try using a horticultural soap or oil, like Neem Oil to eliminate them. Always use control products late in the day when beneficial insects are less active.

Cover from cold: While cabbages likes cool weather, young transplants can be harmed by freezing temperatures. If temperature dip below 32 degrees Fahrenheit, cover your cabbage with a bucket or a frost cloth. Be sure to remove either when temperatures rise during the daytime.

Find more info on the How to Grow Cabbage page on the Bonnie Plants website.

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Brassicaceae

Varieties

Hills

Quisto.

Plains

Golden Acre, Maha Rani.

Soil

It is commonly cultivated in cool moist climate. It is grown as a winter crop in plains. It is grown in varied types of soils ranging from sandy loam to clay. It requires a pH ranging from 5.5 to 6.5 for higher production.

Season of sowing

Hills

The crop can be planted during January – February, July – August and September – October.

Plains

August – November is suitable season.

Seed rate

650 g/ha of seeds is required.

Nursery

About 100 sq.m nursery area is required for raising plants for one hectare area. Apply FYM at 300 kg, and 10 kg of No.5 mixture (9:9:9) along with 50 g of Sodium molybdate and 100 g of Borax. Sow the seeds at 10 cm between rows in raised seed beds after drenching it with Copper oxychloride (2.5 g/lit). Transplant 40 – 45 days old seedlings at a spacing of 45 cm. Avoid land infected with ‘club root disease’.

Protected nursery
Raise the seedlings in shade net house. A nursery area of 5 cents with a slanting slope of 2% is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Cover the nursery area with 50 per cent shade net and the sides with 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net. Form the raised beds of 1m width and convenient length inside the nursery and above the beds, the portrays are placed.

Protray
The Protrays of 98 cells are ideal for cabbage seedling production. Around 600 protrays are required for the production of 28.333 seedlings required for one hectare at spacing of 60x45x45 cm in three row planting

Growing medium
The sterilized cocopeat @ 720kg / ha is mixed with 10kg of neem cake and Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 1kg. About 1.25 kg of the cocopeat medium is required for each tray.

Seed treatment
250 g of hybrid cabbage seed is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Treat the seeds in hot water @ 50C for 30 minutes. 25g of Azospirillum is required for the seed treatment of 250g cabbage seeds.

Sowing
Sow the seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell. Cover the seeds with cocopeat and keep the tray one over the other (8-10Nos) and covered with polythene sheet for 5 days or till germination starts. After 5 days when the seeds are germinated arrange the protrays on the raised beds inside the shade net nursery. Water the tray by rose can everyday (twice / day) upto seed germination. Drench with 19:19:19 + MN @ 0.5 % (5g/lit) solution using rose can or spray micro nutrient of 0.5 % at 18 days after sowing. The cabbage seedlings are ready for transplanting in 25 days

Preparation of field

Bring the soil to a fine tilth. Pits should be taken up at a spacing of 40 cm either way in Hills. Ridges and furrows are formed at 45 cm apart in plains.

Spacing

Hills : 40 x 40 cm
Plains : 45 x 30 cm
Hybrid : 60x 45x45cm in paired row system

Planting

30 – 40 days old seedlings are selected for planting. Hardening of seedlings is done by withholding irrigation 4 – 6 days prior to planting.

Irrigation

Provide continuous supply of moisture.

Drip irrigation

Install drip system with main and sub-main and place the inline laterals at the interval of 1.5. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH or 50 cm for 3.5 LPH in the lateral system. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.

Application of fertilizers

Hills

Apply 30 t/ha FYM, 90 kg N, 90 kg P and 90 kg K as basal and 45:45:45 kg NPK/ha on 30 to 45 days after planting.

Plains

Apply 20 t/ha of FYM, 50 kg N, 125 kg P and 25 kg K/ha along with 2 kg Azospirillum as basal and 50 kg N after one month of planting and earth up.

Fertigation

Fertigation requirement for F1 hybrid: 200: 125:150 kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in three days throughout the cropping period.

Fertigation schedule

Recommended Dose: 200:125:150 kg/ha

75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate in plains and rock phosphate in hills (589 kg/ha)

  1. 19:19:19 = 66 kg / ha
  2. 13:0:45 = 305 kg / ha
  3. 12:61:0 = 31 kg / ha
  4. Urea = 313 kg / ha

After cultivation

Deep hoeing should be avoided, as the Cabbage roots are surface feeders.

Plant protection

Pests

Cut worms

Apply Chlorpyriphos 2 ml/lit in the collar region during evening hours for the control of common cutworm – Agrotis segetum.

Aphids

  • Install yellow sticky trap @12 no/ha to monitor “macropterous” adults (winged adult).
  • Spray neem oil 3 % with 0.5 ml Teepol/lit or any one of the following insecticide.

Diamond backmoth

  1. Grow mustard as intercrop as 20:1 ratio to attract diamond back moths for oviposition. Periodically spray the mustard crop with insecticide to avoid the dispersal of the larvae.
  2. Install pheromone traps at 12 Nos/ha.
  3. Spray Cartap hydrochloride 1 g/lit or Bacillus thuringiensis 2 g/lit at primordial stage (ETL 2 larvae/plant)
  4. Spray NSKE 5 % after primordial stage.
  5. Release parasite Diadegma semiclausum at 50,000/ha, 60 days after planting.

Diseases

Club root

Biological control

Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 g/ kg of seeds, followed by seedling dip @ 5g/ l and soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha along with 50 kg FYM before planting

Chemical control

Dip the seedlings in Carbendazim solution 2 g/l for 20 minutes. Drench the soil around the seedlings in the main field with Carbendazim @ 1 g/l of water. Follow crop rotation. Crucifers should be avoided for three years.

Leaf spots

Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb at 2 g/lit or Carbendazim 1 g/lit.

Leaf Blight

Leaf blight can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/ litre.

Ring spot

Ring spot can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb 2 g/lit or Carbendzim 1 g/lit or Copper oxychloride 2.5 g/lit.

Downy mildew

Downy mildew can be controlled by combined spraying of (Metalaxyl + Mancozeb) 2 g/lit 3 sprays at 10 days interval.

Black rot

Black rot can be controlled by dipping the seeds in 100 ppm Streptocycline for 30 minutes. Two sprays with 2 g/lit Copper oxychloride + Streptomycin 100 ppm after planting and head formation.

Yield

Hills : 70 – 80 t/ha in 150 days.
Plains : 25 – 35 t/ha in 120 days.

Market Information

Crop Growing districts : Nilgris, Krishnagiri, Theni, Erode
Major markets in Tamil Nadu : Mettupalayam, Ottanchathiram, Hosur and Dindigul
Grade Specification : Size and Weight

Updated on : Jan 2016

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